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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
300 B.C.
Celts called "Brythons" live in Britain
55 B.C.
Caesar invades Britain
313 A.D.
Christianity declared lawful in Rome
409 A.D.
Roman legions withdraw from Britain
432 A.D.
Patrick brings Christianity to Ireland
449 A.D
Angles, Saxons, Jutes invade Britain
516-537 A.D.
King Arthur rules Celtic tribe
597 A.D.
Saint Augustine establishes monastery at Cantebury
793 A.D.
Vikings invade Britain, century of invasions begin
878 A.D.
Alfred the Great is king of England; forces Danes from Wessex
891 A.D
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle begun
1066 A.D.
Normans defeat Saxons; William the Conqueror becomes English king
Sources of info on Anglo-Saxons
1. surviving literature
2. church records
3. Roman military records
4. archeology
thane
Anglos-Saxon warrior/soldier
comitatus
circular relationship that describes brotherhood that existed b/t chief and thanes
bard/scop
poet, transmitter of history; gifted in remembering stories and weaving in other stories
epic poem
1. long narrative poem
2. serious subject
3.told in an elevated style
4. about a superhuman/part divine hero
5.hero's actions affect the fate of a nation
elegy
a poem that mourns for someone or something lost
elegiac
mournful tone used in most Anglo-Saxon poetry
alliteration
two or more words in a line of poetry with the same beginning sound. In Anglo-Saxon poetry, used as a memory aid and to stress words
caesura
obvious pause within a line.
In A/S poetry, the pause divides the line, with at least one alliterative beat in each half, and was originally where an instrument might have been played
kenning
a compound word metaphor, used to expand vocabulary and aid memory
Norman invasion
in 1066 William of Normandy defeated King Harold of England. This invasion ended the A/S period and unified England with the rest of the Continent. Normans brought an administrative ability and cultural unity to England
Domesday Book
inventory of nearly every piece of property in Europe. Created by King William
Feudalism
social system based on hierarchy, with overlords, vassals, vassal's vassals, down to serfs.
knights
most men who weren't serfs were trained as knights, because a vassal's primary function was military service
"Iron Cocoon"
the suit of armor came about b/c crossbow arrows could pierce chain mail. The fitted plates were so heavy and complex that knights could suffocate in them
chivalry
a system of ideals and social codes governing the behavior of knights and gentlewomen
Crusades
European Chritstians attacked Muslims to win the Holy Land. They failed, but the exposure to eastern culture brought new knowledge to improve the quality of life
Thomas A Becket
The Archbishop of Canterbury who was murdered in his cathedral. The reastion to his martyrdom shifted power away from the king toward the Church
Magna Carta
Aristocrats forced king John to sign this charter giving them some rights.
Hundred Years War
England vs. France
England developed a national consciousness. Musket and longbow end age of knights. Rise of yeoman class
Black death
plague led to end of feudalism b/c of a shortage of labor
three estates
1. clergy
2. nobility
3. commoners
pilgrimage
spiritual and physical journey to a shrine or holy place for spiritual/physical healing
seven sacraments
baptism, confirmation, holy eucharist, penance, matrimony, holy orders, extreme unction
Pentecost
associated with confirmation, event when Holy Spirit descended upon Apostles after resurrection
Purgatory
where people go who aren't bad enough for hell or good enough for heaven. Purgatory ends on judgement day. People could work off time in purgatory by works in life
Indulgence
reduced time in Purgatory. Became a monetary transaction with corrupt priests
seven deadly sins
sloth, gluttony, envy, avarice, lust, pride, wrath
excommunication
official separation from the life of the church
4 humors
yello bile-choleric
black bile-melancholy
phlegm-phlegmatic (sluggish)
blood-sanguine (passionate)
Fabliau
dirty story with low class characters
Breton Lai
a form of medieval French/English lit: short rhymed tales of love and chivalry, often involving supernatural magical elements usually set in Brittany
Exemplum
story that preaches a moral/emphasizes a theme in preaching