Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/21

Click to flip

21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Major Angiosperm Clades
Basal Families (pollen usually monocolpate)

Magnoliid Complex

Monocots

Eudicots
Primitive Agiosperm Clades
Basal Families>>>>earliest flowering plants
ex:amborellaceae, nymphaeceae, illicieae

Magnoliid Complex
ex:Magnoliaceae (magnolias)
Lauraceae (cinamon)
Piperaceae (black pepper)
Monocots
monocolpate pollen
floral parts in 3's
leaf ventaion is parallel
one cotelydon in embryo
stems w/ scattered vasc. bundles & no secondary growth.
Monocot Families
1-Liliaceae (lilies)
2-Zingiberaceae (gingers)
3-Dioscoreaceae (yams)
4-Arecaceae (palms, coconut)
5-Poaceae (grasses)
6-Orchidaceae (orchids)
Eudicots
Tricolpate pollen
floral parts in 4's and 5's
leaf venation is reticulate and netlike
2 cotyledons
vasc. bundles in circ. pattern with secondary growth
first root>>>taproots system
Eudicots Families
1-Ranunculaceae (basal eudicot family>>buttercups)
2-Papveraceae (opium poppy)
3-Cayophyllaceae (carnations)
4-Vitaceae (grapes)
5-Fabaceae (beans)
6-Brassicae (cabbage)
Flower Parts:

1-pedicel
2-recepticle
3-sepals
4-petals
5-stamens
6-carpels
1-flower stalk
2-part of pedicel where flowers are attached.
3-outer green leaves
4-lrg clrfl to attrct pllntrs
5-male
6-female
Floral Appendages:

1-sepals
2-petals
3-sepals and petals 2gthr
1-calyx
2-corrolla
3-perianth
More Flrl appendeges:

1-stamen
1-a microsporophyll that consists of a filament, 4 chambered anther (each chamber is a microsporangium). All anther chambers are lined with tapetum which suplies nutrnts to the grwing pollen grains.
Angio Repro.
haploid microspores are borne out of meiosis of the diploid microsporocytes inside the anther. these microspores undergo one mitotic division, the resulting 2 cells are a generative cell and a vegatative cell, these 2 mature into the single pollen grain.
microgametophyte
pollen

composed of 3 cells. A vegatative cell, and 2 sperm cells.
Carpels
megasporophylls (female). collectively called the gynoecium or pistil. Divided into 3 parts:
1-stigma (receives pollen)
2-style (plln grws dwn thru this)
3-ovary (contains ovules[meiosis occurs here] which are located in the locules{#of these=#ofcarpels} that develp into seeds)
Female gametophyte production in ovary
each megasporanigium cntns one megasporocyte. The diploid megasporocyte in the ovule undergoes meiosis to form 4 nuclei (3 die). The remainin one is the megaspore. This megaspore undergoes mitosis to form 8 haploid nuclei but only 7 cells. 3 are the antipodal cells, one is the egg cell flanked by 2 synergid cells and the last cell is the polar nuclei, which has 2 nuclei in one shared cytoplasm.
Flower types

1-complete
2-incomplete
3-perfect
4-imperfect
1-have carpel, anther, sepals and petals
2-lack one of these 4 things
3-bisexual and hermaphroditic
4-unisexual
plant types

1-monoecious

2-dioecious
1-have male and female unisexual flowers on the same plant

2-have male and female unisexual flowers on diff. plants
Wind pollnated flwrs
often unisex flwrs
in N or S temperate regions w/ deciduous frsts.
release pollen early in the spring.
Rewards for pollinators
1-nectar
2-protein rich pollen grains
3-site for repro. for the pllntr
4-shelter
floral characteristics to enhance pollination
1-landing strctrs
2-nectar guides
3-nectar spurs
4-mimicry/psedocopulation
ways Flwrs enhance pllnation

1-Inflorescence
many flowers clustered 2geter>>more visible and more fragrant to attrct mre pllnatrs.
Types of Inflorescence

1-panicle

2-raceme

3-umbel
1-main axis has branches w/ flwrs on branches

2-single main axis stalk w/ flwrs attached along stalk

3-all flower stalks come from one point
Strategies to prevent self-fert
-stamens and stigma diff height on same flwr
-stamens and stigma mature at diff times
-diocious>>unisex flowers on separate plants.
-self-incompatability
-ability to reject own