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35 Cards in this Set

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What is the vallecula?
The epiglottic vallecula is a depression (vallecula) just behind the root of the tongue between the folds in the throat.

These depressions serve as "spit traps"; saliva is temporarily held in the valleculae to prevent initiation of the swallowing reflex.

It is frequently an important landmark in intubation, where the blade-tip of a Macintosh-style laryngoscope is placed to facilitate direct visualization of the glottis.
What is the narrowest region of the adult airway?
Larynx
What is the inferior border of the "upper airway"?
Larynx
Where does the "lower airway" begin?
Below the larynx
The cricoid cartilage is at the level of which cervical vertebra?
C6
The trachea bifurcates into the right and left main-stem bronchi at the level of which vertebra?
T4
Which mainstem bronchus is more upright, rendering it the most opening for a foreign body to enter?
Right
Which nerve carries somatic sensory information away from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?
Lingual nerve
Which nerve carries taste sensation from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?
Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Which nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?
Facial nerve (CN VII)
Which two verterbrae landmark the larynx?
C4-C6
Name the nine pieces of cartilage of the larynx.
Singular:
-Thyroid
-Cricoid
-Epiglottis

Paired:
-cuneiform
-arytenoid
-corniculate
Where does the hyoid bone lie relative to the thyroid cartilage?
Superiorly
Name the ligament that connects the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone.
Thyrohyoid membrane
What is the glottis?
The glottis is comprised of the vocal folds ("true vocal cords") and the space between them, the rima glottidis
Name the ligament that connects the thyroid cartilage to the cricoid cartilage.
Cricothyroid ligament
Where is the isthmus of the thyroid gland relative to the cricoid cartilage?
The isthmus of the thyroid cartilage lies INFERIOR to the cricoid cartilage

From superior to inferior:
Hyoid bone
Thyroid cartilage
Cricoid cartilage
Thyroid gland
Describe the airway epithelium superior to the vocal folds.

Describe the airway epithelium below the vocal folds.
Superior - stratified squamous epithelium

Inferior - Ciliated columnar epithelium with mucus-producing globlet and basal cells.
What are the ventricular folds?

What's another name for the ventricular folds?
The ventricular folds are the "false vocal cords," a second set of folds that lies directly above the true cords.
Give the real name for the false vocal cords.
Ventricular folds
Give the real name for the true vocal cords.
Vocal folds
Give the name of the space between the vocal folds.
Rima glottidis
Together, the vocal folds and the rima glottidis comprise the...
Glottis
Name the pieces of cartilage that sit upon the arytenoid cartilage.
Corniculate cartilage
Name a set of muscles that adduct the vocal folds.
Lateral cricoarytenoid muscles
What do the lateral cricoarytenoid muscles do?
Adduct the vocal folds
What do the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles do?
Abduct the vocal folds
Name a set of muscles that abduct the vocal folds
Posterior cricoarytenoid muscles
Which two nerves innervate the larynx and trachea?
Superior laryngeal nerve
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Which nerve innervates all but one of the muscles that move the vocal folds?
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Why might injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve result in a change in voice?
The recurrent laryngeal nerve innervates all but one of the muscles that move the vocal folds.
Which is the only muscle to move the vocal folds that is not innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve?

What action does this muscle have on the vocal folds?
Cricothyroid muscle

Adduction
What is the atlanto-occipital joint?
The joint between the atlas and the occiput.

The atlas is the first cervical vertebra.

The occiput is the posterior bone of the skull.

In other words, the atlanto-occipital joint is the joint between the skull and the vertebral column.
What effect does sympathetic activity have on airway smooth muscle?
Relaxation of smooth muscle, dilation of airway
What effect does parasympathetic activity have on airway smooth muscle?
Contraction of smooth muscle, narrowing of airway