Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/38

Click to flip

38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What supplies motor innervation to the larynx?
Motor Innervation- The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve innervates the cricothyroid muscle. Because it supplies all other intrinsic muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid, the recurrent laryngeal nerve is the major motor nerve of the larynx
What supplies sensory innervation to the larynx?
Sensory Innervation-The internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve is the major sensory nerve of the larynx; it supplies laryngeal tissues from the vocal cords up, including the vocal cords. The recurrent laryngeal nerve supplies the sensory supplies the sensory innervation to the laryngeal mucosa inferior to vocal cords
What are the functions of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles?
Posterior cricoarytenoids-abducts vocal cords (“dilates” cords)
Lateral cricoarytenoids- adducts vocal cords
Transverse arytenoid- closes rima glottidis
Oblique arytenoid- controls sphincters to vestibule; decreases volume of larynx (narrows the inlet)
Aryepiglottics- controls sphincters to vestibules (narrows the inlet)
Thyroepiglottics-control sphincter to vestibule (narrows the inlet)
Cricothyroids-increases vocal cord tension (tenses the cords)
Thyroarytenoids-reduces cord tension (relaxes the cords)
What occurs with unilateral laryngeal nerve damage? What about bilateral?
Damage to the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve produces weakness & huskiness of the voice. The cricothyroid muscle is paralyzed.
Unilateral right recurrent laryngeal nerve damage is characterized by hoarseness & a paralyzed cord that assumes an intermediate position
Bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve damage results in aphonia & paralyzed cords. Each paralyzed cord assumes an intermediate position. Cords can flop together causing airway obstruction during inspiration
1) Except for the cricothyroid muscle, the intrinsic muscle of the larynx are innervated by what motor nerve?
A)Internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve
B)External branch of the superior laryngeal nerve
C)Recurrent laryngeal nerve
D)glossopharyngeal
C) Recurrent laryngeal nerve
2) What muscles adduct the vocal cords?
A) Cricothyroids

B) Thyrroarytenoids

C) Posterior cricoarytenoids

D) Lateral cricoarytenoids
D) Lateral cricoarytenoids
What happens when the patients left recurrent laryngeal nerve is injured during subtotal thyroidectomy?
Midway abduction/adduction (Position of injured cord) Hoarsness (Phonation)
What does the flat portion and the steep portion of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve facilitate in relation to O2
The flat portion of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve facilitates the loading of oxygen by the blood. The steep portion of the oxyhemogloblin dissociation curve facilitates unloading of oxygen @ tissues.
P50 is the partial pressure of oxygen @ which Hgb is ___% saturated by oxygen. Norm P50 is ___--___ mm Hg.
P50 is the partial pressure of oxygen @ which Hgb is 50% saturated by oxygen. Norm P50 is 26 – 27 mm Hg.
SO2 of 70 & 90% corresponds to PO2 of __ & __mm Hg
SO2 of 70 & 90% corresponds to PO2 of 40 & 60 mm Hg
When there is a leftward shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, the amount of O2 carried by hemoglobin increases or decreases?
When there is a leftward shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, the amount of O2 carried by hemoglobin increases
When there is a rightward shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, the amount of O2 carried by hemoglobin is ______.
When there is a rightward shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, the amount of O2 carried by hemoglobin is reduced.(unloading of O2 facilitated)
Name factors that would cause leftward shifts in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve (loading of O2)
Leftward Shift Factors (Loading of O2)
↓ Temp
↑ pH (decrease H+ concentration)
↓ PCO2
↓ 2,3 DPG
Fetal Hgb
CarboxyHgb
Methemoglobin
P50 < 26-27 mmHg “less is Left”
Name factors that would cause rightward shifts in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve (unloading of O2)
Rightward Shift Factors (Unloading of O2)
↑ Temp
↓pH (increase H+ concentration)
↑ PCO2
↑ 2,3 DPG
Sickle Cell
Maternal Hgb
P50 >26-27 mmHg
What is the Bohr effect?
The Bohr effect refers to the shift in oxyHgb dissociation curve in response to an ↑ or ↓ in PCO2
Systemic Circuit: the oxyHgb curve shifts right, & this rightward shifts facilitates the unloading of O2 from the blood
Pulmonary Circuit: the oxyHgb curve shifts left & this leftward shift facilitate the loading of O2 into the blood.
What is Haldane effect?
Haldane effect describes how a change in partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the blood influences the blood CO2 dissociation curve.
The CO2 dissociation curve shifts up & left when PO2 decreases and shifts down & right when PO2 increases.
90% of CO2 transported by the blood is in the form of HCO3
CO2 is carried in the blood in: (1) dissolved form, (2) as HCO3 , (3) chemically bound to proteins
The exchange of Cl- for HCO3 is the Chloride shift, which is also referred to as the Hamburger shift
The oxyhemoglobin curve becomes steep when PaO2 falls below:
A) 60 mm Hg

B) 70 mm Hg

C) 80 mm Hg

D) 90 mm Hg
A) 60 mm Hg
The oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve shifts left in response to:
A) Hypercapnia

B) Hypothermia

C) Increased 2,3-DPG

D) Metabolic acidosis
B) Hypothermia
Which of the following conditions is associated with an increase in the P50?
A) Sickle cell anemia

B) Fetal hemoglobin

C) Carboxyhemoglobin

D) Methemoglobin
A) Sickle cell anemia
The patient is given meperidine for premedication. What happens to the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve and to the carbon dioxide blood dissociation curve?
OxyHGB Dissociation Curve shifts right

CO2 Curve shifts left
The patients PaO2 increases from 100 mm Hg to 500 mm Hg. The amount of dissolved oxygen in the arterial blood increases by how much?
A) 0.3 ml O2/100 ml

B) 1.2 ml O2/ 100 ml

C) 1.5 ml O2/100 ml

D) 2.1 ml O2/100 ml
B) 1.2 ml O2/100 ml
What is the PaO2 when the SaO2 is 90%

A) 40 mm Hg

B) 50 mm Hg

C) 60 mm Hg

D) 70 mm Hg
C) 60 mm Hg
What percent of total CO2 is carried in the blood as bicarbonate?
A) 20%

B) 50%

C) 70%

D) 90%
D) 90%
What enzyme(s) is (are) responsible for producing bicarbonate in the red blood cell?
A) Nonspecific esterases

B) Carbonic anhydrase

C) Creatine kinase

D) Acetylcholinesterase
B) Carbonic anhydrase
12) If PaCO2 is 30 mm Hg, how much CO2 is dissolved in the blood?
A) 2.01 ml CO2/100ml blood

B) 2.53 ml CO2/ 100 ml blood

C) 3.12 ml CO2/100 ml blood

D) 4.88 ml CO2/100 ml blood
A) 2.01 ml CO2/ 100 ml blood
After it is produced, bicarbonate diffuses out of the red blood cell in exchange for:
A) Hydrogen ions

B) Chloride ions

C) Calcium ions

D) Phosphate ions
B) Chloride ion
What are the control of ventilation/respiratory in the brain?
DRG: Dorsal Respiratory Group (Pacemaker, Vital Center, Controls Diaphragm, & External Intercostal Muscles)
---Found in the medulla & consider the inspiratory pacemaker
VRG: Ventral Respiratory Group--Can influence both inspiration & expiration (Internal intercostal nerve)
---(Found in Medulla)
PnC & ApC: Pneumotaxic & Apneustic Center
---The pneumotaxic center shuts off inspiration
---The apneustic center promotes deep and prolonged inspiration.
---Work together to help control the rate & depth of inspiration (Found in Pons)
What is Hering-Breuer reflex?
Hering-Breuer reflex is a protective mechanism for preventing excess lung inflation (Stretch receptors in bronchi and bronchioles)-Inhibits
In adults reflex does not become important tidal volume exceeds 1.5 L
In neonates the reflex is strong & physiologically relevant
The reflex is carried by the vagus nerve (afferent)
The central chemoreceptor are stimulated by ↑ __ ; an ↑ in CSF CO2 automatically leads to an ↑ in ___.
The central chemoreceptor are stimulated by ↑ H+ ; an ↑ in CSF CO2 automatically leads to an ↑ in H+
↑ of H+ & HCO3 in response to ↑ CO2 in CSF = ________ Principle from the law of mass action
↑ of H+ & HCO3 in response to ↑ CO2 in CSF = LeChateliers Principle from the law of mass action
CO2 drives normal respiration. Peripheral chemoreceptor are stimulated by ↑ ____ and/or ↓ ____(<60 mm Hg).
CO2 drives normal respiration. Peripheral chemoreceptor are stimulated by ↑ PCO2 and/or ↓ PaO2 (<60 mm Hg).
The ____ nerve carries sensory impulses from the carotid bodies & the ____nerve carries sensory impulses from the aortic bodies & also from stretch receptors found in lung parenchyma.
The glossopharyngeal nerve carries sensory impulses from the carotid bodies & the vagus nerve carries sensory impulses from the aortic bodies & also from stretch receptors found in lung parenchyma.
______ chemoreceptors are most responsive to ↓ in arterial blood O2 when PaO2 falls below 60mm Hg
Peripheral chemoreceptors are most responsive to ↓ in arterial blood O2 when PaO2 falls below 60mm Hg
The pacemaker of the respiratory system is found in the

A) Apneustic center

B) Pneumotaxic center

C) Ventral respiratory group

D) Dorsal respiratory group
D) Dorsal respiratory group
Central chemoreceptors are stimulated directly by

A) Carbon dioxide

B) Hydrogen ions

C) Both

D) Neither
B) Hydrogen ions
16) Peripheral chemorecptors are most sensitive to:

A) increased carbon dioxide

B) increased hydrogen ions

C) Decreased PaO2 (<60 mmHg)

D) Increased temperature
C) Decreased PaO2 (<60 mm Hg)
What nerve carries sensory information from the carotid, and what nerve carries sensory information from the aortic bodies?
Carotid bodies- Glossopharyngeal

Aortic bodies-Vagus
What respiratory center in the pons participates in shutting off inspiration?
A) Pneumotaxic center

B) Apneustic center

C) Both the pneumotaxic center and apneustic center

D) Neither the pneumotaxic center nor apneustic center
A) Pneumotaxic center