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25 Cards in this Set

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The quantitative study of the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of injected and inhaled drugs and their metabolites.
Pharmacokinetics
What the BODY does to a DRUG!
Pharmacokinetics
The study of the intrinsic sensitivity or responsiveness of receptors to a drug and the mechanisms by which these effects occur.
Pharmacodynamics
What the DRUG does to the BODY!
Pharmacodynamics
The study of how molecules are structured in three dimensions.
Stereochemistry
Pair of molecules existing in two forms that are mirror images of one another but cannot be superimposed.
Enantiomers
Enantiomer when dissolved in solution that rotates polarized light clockwise.
Dextrorotatory, d[+]
Enantiomer when dissolved in solution that rotates polarized light counter-clockwise.
Levorotatory, l[-]
When the two enantiomers [+,-] are present in equal proportions (50:50).
Racemic mixture
The therapeutically inactive isomer in a racemic mixture should be regarded as a(an) __________.
Impurity
Term used to describe individuals in whom an unusually low does of drug produces its expected pharmacologic effects.
Hyperreactive
Term used to describe individuals who are allergic (sensitized) to a drug.
Hypersensitive
Term used to describe individuals who require exceptionally large doses of drug to evoke expected pharmacologic effects.
Hyporeactive
Term used to describe hyporeactivity acquired from chronic exposure to a drug.
Tolerance
Term used to describe hyporeactivity acquired from formation of antibodies.
Immunity
When a second drug acting with a first drug will produce an effect equal to an algebraic summation.
A+B=C
Additive effect
When two drugs interact to produce an effect greater than an algebraic summation.
A+B= >C
Synergistic effect
When two drugs interact to produce an effect less than an algebraic summation.
A+B= <C
Antagonism
Drug that activates a receptor by binding to that receptor.
Agonist
Drug that binds to the receptor without activating the receptor and at the same time prevents an agonist from stimulating the receptor.
Antagonist
Time necessary for the plasma concentration of a drug to decrease to 50% during the elimination phase.
Elimination half-time
Number of elimination half-times necessary to eliminate >95% of drug.
5 - 96.9% eliminated
6 - 98.4% eliminated
Time necessary to eliminate 50% of the drug from the body after its rapid IV injection.
Elimination half-life
Principal site of drug absorption after oral administration.
Small intestine - related to large surface area of this portion of the GI tract
Extensive hepatic extraction and metabolism of drugs absorbed from the GI tract that enter the portal venous blood and pass through the liver before entering the systemic circulation for delivery to tissue receptors.
First-pass hepatic effect