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14 Cards in this Set

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Preanesthetic Drugs - Reasons for
To Calm or sedate: smooth induction and recovery
To reduce or eliminate adverse effects of general anesthetics
to reduce the ammount of general anesthetic required
to decrease pain during and after surgery
Anticholinergics
used to decrease parasympathetic responses porduced by anesthetic drugs
Sympathetic nervous sustem
Stimulation produces responses for fight or flight
Synapse
Space between nerve endings and receptor
Parasympathetic response
Neurotransmitter = Acetylcholine
Increased saliva and tear production
Pupils contract heart rate slows decreased blood pressure bronchi constrict increased gastroingestinal motility and secretions
Receptor
Site stimulated to respond when it reveives neurotransmitter from nerve endind (on muscles, nerve, glands)
Sympathetic responses
Neurotransmitter = Norepinephrine
decreased saliva and tear preoduction pupils dilate heart rate speeds up increased blood pressure bronchi dilate decreased motility and secretions
neurotransmitter
Chemical that is released from nerve ending and travels across synbapse, stimulating receptor
Parasympathetic nervous sustem
Stimulation produces responses for all ik relax situations (calming effects)
Atropine: derived from deadly nightshade plant
cheap onset 20 min - sq
10-15 min IM (more vasculature) duration 60 min after SQ
reduces tear secteation
avoid in animals with rapid heart rates - fat dogs and thin cats
produces thick mucous airwau sectetions (cats and neonates)
produces GI activity (ileus in equines and bovines) Crosses placental barrier (avoid in C-sections
signs of everdose tachycardia, peripheral casodilation (red as a beet)
dru mucous membranes/thirst (dry as a bone)
Hyperthermia (hot as a pistol)
Excitement, dilated pupils (mad as a hatter)
Glycopyrrolate: effects similar to atropine; costs more
Longer duration (2-3 hrs_ milder effects does not cross placental barrier (use more)
Sedatives/Tranquilizers
uses: calming effect smooth induction and recovery, reduce the amount of general anesthetic required, prevent excitatory effects of some aneshtetics in some species
Phenothaizines-
Ace[romazine
most commonly used preanesthetic sedative in veterinary medicine-
advantages - not controled sedation lasting 2-8 hrs Im
antiemetic
antiarrythmic - protects heart against epinephrine
precautions - no analgesic effect, prolapse of third eyelid
vasodilation - avoid in hypotensice patient
admin: IM< SQ< oral, IV with caution - onset 15 min IM
Benzodiazepines
used in combination with induction agents
adv: mild calming effect, ecellent muscle relaxation, prevent sezures, minimal cardiac and respiratory depression precautions; may cause excitement when used alone