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25 Cards in this Set

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How do local anesthetics work?
The drug prevents sensory nerve transmission at axon. May also affect voluntary motor control of body parts.
Do local anesthetics affect the brain?
No, not when properly administered/dosed. The drug reaches the brain only in vary dilute amounts.
What are 7 ways to apply local anesthetics?
Topical, infiltration, nerve blocks, line or ring blocks, intra-articular, regional anesthesia & epidurals.
Where are topical anesthetics administered?
Skin, eyes & mucous membranes.
How do you apply infiltration anesthetics?
Drug is injected SC around site - diffuses to site.
What is the most common type of local anesthetic?
Infiltration.
What would you use infiltration anesthetics for?
For wounds, small skin cysts, tumors & warts.
How do you administer nerve blocks?
The drug is injected near (not into) a specific nerve, it blocks sensation from area distal to injection site.
What are nerve blocks used for?
Lameness exams in horse & cattle, bovine dehorning & eye surgery.
How do you administer line or ring blocks?
It's a continuous line or ring of drug injected proximal to body part.
What are line or ring blocks used for?
Feline declaws, bovine teat or digit surgery.
How do you administer intra-articular anesthetics?
The drug is injected into a joint.
What are intra-articular anesthetics used for?
Post-surgical pain management.
How do you administer regional anesthetics?
The drug is injected where major nerves exit the spinal cord.
What are regional anesthetics used for?
For analgesia of entire limb, caudal trunk.
Where are epidurals administered?
The drug is placed into epidural space, through the dorsal aspect of lumbosacral space. Not into CS fluid!!!
How do epidurals work?
They block sensation & motor control caudal to injection.
What are epidurals used for?
Large animal obstetrics & vaginal prolapse. Small animal C-section. Post-surgical management of profound pain.
What are 4 things you need to do before giving an epidural to a patient?
Surgical clip & scrub, sedation, ventral recumbency & elevate head to prevent drug from traveling forward.
What is potentiation?
One drug increases effectiveness of another drug.
What are 3 problems that could occur when giving an epidural?
Infiltration may cause inflammation, swelling & delayed wound healing. Injection into a nerve may cause temp neuritis or permanent nerve damage. If drug reaches brain in high concentration it could lead to seizures or death.
What 2 things can you do to avoid an epidural reaching the brain?
Aspirate to make sure you're not in the vein & elevate the head.
What's a problem with epinephrine, in regards to other drugs?
It potentiates local anesthetics by causing peripheral vasoconstriction; delays absorption of drug, drug stays in site longer. It helps local drugs work better.
What are some types of local anesthetics?
Lidocaine, bupivicaine, mepivicaine, procaine, proparacaine & cetacaine.
What is proparacaine?
It's an ophthalmis topical.