Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Characteristics of Ideal Inhalant
1. Min Toxicity to cardio, resp, hepatic, renal & nervous
2. Min tox to sx personel
3. Ease of admin
4. Rapid & gentle induct & recovery
5. Depth easily controlled
6. Good musc relsx
7. Adequate post op analgesia
8. Low Cost
9. Adequate potency to get proper depth
10. Non flammable & non - exposive
11. No expesnive equipment
What is the purpose of inhalant agents
Anesthetic & O2 delivery to alveoli where it croses the membrane & enters the bloodstream.
How does inhalant agent work
pressure gradient
Define vapro pressure
the measure of the amount of liquid anesthetic that will evaporate @ 68F
What is the advantage of the precision vaporizer
delivers an EXACT concentration of anesthetic slelected
Control the delivery closely
Which gen. anest can be used with a nonpecision or "wick vaporizer
What do agents with low solubility coefficients then to do

& why is this important
Remain a gas

Rapid induction & recover & rapid change of depth
Define Solubility Coefficient
(or Partition Coefficient)
A measure of the distribution of inhalant agent btwn blood & gas phases in the body.

Tendency of anesthetic agent to exist as a gas or tendency of agent to disolve in blood
What to High solubiliity coefficients act
extremely soluble in blood & tissue so
In decending order which is the fastest induction agent
1. Desflurane
2. Nitrous Oxide
4. Isoflurane
5. Halothane
6. Methoxyflurane
Define MAC
Minimum Alveolar Concentration of an anesthetic at 1 atmosphere that produces immobility in 50% of subjects exposed to a noxious stimulus
Why use MAC
Used to compare inhalation anesthetic potency
The ------ the MAC vale, the -----potent the anesthetic agent
Lower MAC, the potent the anesthetic
MAC is ----- related to oil/gas partition coefficient (solubility)
What is the surgical plane of MAC
1.5 X MAC
Agent with slow induction & recovery rates
Agent NOT recommended for mask or chamber induction
What is MOST POTENT agent
List the drugs which cause potent respiratory depressant
2. Ketamine
3. barbituates
4. propofol
5. opioids
Disadvantages of Methoxyflurane
1. Toxic metabolists may lead to renal damag3
2. Potent respiratory depressant
Advantages to Methoxyflurane
1. Excellent musc relaxant
2. Good post-op analgesia
Halothane has a ----- induction & recovery
fairly rapid
Adverse effects of Halothane
1. sensitives heart to epinephrine
2. < vagal tone - bradycardia (decrease heart rate
3.mild myocardial depressant
4. causes vasodilation (hypothermia & poss. hypotension
5. Respiration depression
6. unstable & has a preservative
7. rare hepatic toxicity in humans
8. Asso w/ malignant hyperthermia (patient cooking)
isofluran is ------induction & recovery
extremely rapid
Which is more potent iso or halothane
Why use isoflurane
1. patients with cardiac dz
2. patients w/ hepatic or renal dz
3. Good muscle relaxant
Disadvantages to using isofluran
1. respiratory depression
2. little to NO analgesia
Which is the FASTER induction agent iso or sevoflurane
low solubility coefficient to VERY RAPID
Which is more potent iso or sevoflurane
Iso has HIGHER MAC so iso is less potent

Sevoflurane is more potent
Big disadvantage to seoflurane
reacts with soda lime in rebreather to produce Chemical A producing renal damage in rats
Why would sevoflurane cause renal damage in rates
b/c low lipid solubility????
Big + to sevoflurane
rapid induction & recovery so less monitoring
Disadvantages of sevoflurane
1. greater effect on the heart than iso
2. No analgesic effect
Advantages of sevoflurane
1. rapid inducton, recovery & depth control
2. good muscle relaxant
3. Minimal biotransformation in liver
Advantages of Nitrous Oxide
1.Speeds up take of other agents
2. rapid induction & recovery
3. reduces MAC of other agents - so need less of them
4. Wide margine of safety on organs
5. good analgesic & muscle relax
Disadvantages of NO2
1. risks of hypoxia ( b/c 2x O2 fow)
2. Dissusion into air pockets
3. Diffusion hypoxia if O2 not left on at end of procedure to
4. Cognitive disorders in staff
What agent can cause diffusion hypoxia & how can it be avoided?
Nitrous oxide.

Allow O2 to flow & bag for at least 5 minutes after procedure to
How does Nitorus oxide cause diffusion hypoxia
Larger molecules of nitrous exiting thru respiratory
displace the O2 molecules in the alveoli
Advantages to desflurane
Super high vapor pressure
2. lowest volitility
3. NOT sensitize myocardium to epinephrine
4. little metabolism in body - excreted thru respiration
Disadvantagesto desflurane
1. requires new equipment
2. irritating to breath - dose related respiratory depression
3. sympathetic storm in humans (transient increase in Heart rate & BP)
4. May produce CO when passes dry CO2 absrpant.
Which inhalation agest has excellent muscle relaxation
Which inhalant caused marked respiratory depression
Which inhalant causes sever cardiac depression
Which inhalant has the potential to cause cardiac arrythemia
Halothan & to a lesser degree methoxyflurane
Which agent has reported kidney toxicity
Methoxyflurane (animal & human)
2. sevoflurane (rats
Which inhalant has the highest lipid solubility
What drugs can cause bradycardia
1. xylazine
2. medetomidine
3. opioids
4. methoxyflurane
Which drugs can cause cardiac arrythemia
1. barbituates thiopental)
2. xyzlaine
3. halothane
What drugs can cause apnea or repsiratory arrest
1. IV ketamine
2. Barbituates
3. Propofol
4. opioid
Which inhalant has provides the best analgesia
Which inhalants can increase heart sensitivity to epinephrine
Which inhalants decrease the BP
1. Methoxyflurane
2. Halothane
3. Isoflurane
4. Sevoflurane