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42 Cards in this Set

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Battle of Salmis
480 BC
Greeks
Xerxes warships blocked both ends of the channel;
Smaller and faster Greek ships
Important Athens leader
Themistocles
Came up with battle plan to defeat Xerxes
abandon Athens and fight a sea
Important Persian Leaders/kings
Darius
Xerxes
What was the false message given to Xerxes?
Told him how the Greek fleet was planning to slip away through the narrow channel of the Bay of Salamis
Battle of Thermopylas
7,000 Greeks+300 Spartans blocked the Persian troops passage.
Held them for three days
Traitor told the Xerxes of another passage
Spartans stayed; Athenians retreated
All killed
Importance of War
Greeks formed an alliance called Delian League
Greek city-states felt sense of pride
Athens emerged as a leader
Prestiage of victory over the Persians adn the wealth of the Athenian empire set the stage for the "golden age."
Chronology
When was the Persian War?
490-479 BC
Who was Hippias?
Greek who was banished and became an advisory to King Darius of Persia
Who was General Miltiades?
Athens (Greek) Commander who devised a plan to defeat King Darius.
--few men in the center and heavily armed the sides or wings.
--charged the Greek Army
Vocabulary
trieres
ram on the front of Greek vessels. The ram was heavy metal
Famous People

Pheidippides
entrusted with honor of running from Marathon to Athens to tell them the Athenians had defeated King Darius
Died after delivering the message.
Told Athens that Darius was coming to Athens.
Rejoice! The victory is ours!
Athenians constructed hugh mound of earth to honor those who died. Honored by the first martharon.
Chronology

Battle of Marathon
490 BC
22 miles from Athens
General Miltiades defeated the Persians. Persian commander was Dotis
Over 6,000 Persians died and less than 200 Greeks lost their lives.
Essay
Two reason for Greek victory?
1. Greeks had better armor/weaponry for hand to hand combat
helmets, shieds, breast plates, stronger swords.
2. Greeks had better cause to fight for freedom.
Essay

Two additional reasons for Greek victory?
3. Used geography to their advantage. Created a small battlefield between the hills and the sea and drove the Persians into the marshes.
4. Greek strategy of weakeing the center and strengthing the flanks so they could surround the Persians and use hand to hand combat.
Chronology

Battle of Thermopylae?
480 BC
Mix and Match

Lionidas
Brave Spartan King in charge of Greek forces.
Decided on a plan of action to use his own trusted 300 men to fight Xerxes.
His order of the day: Breakfast here, supper in Hades (the underworld).
Mix and Match

Xerxes
King of Persian.
Fought the battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC
Chronology

Two reasons for Persian victory at the Battle of Thermopylae
1. Outnumbered the Greeks 50-1 (300,000 vs 7,000)
2. Ephialtes told the Persians of the Anopia pass so they could surround the Spartans
Chronology

Battle of Salamis
480 BC
Reason for Greek victory
Greeks had smaller, faster ships with a medal lining to sink the Persian ships easier.
2. The Greeks sent a false messge to get the Persian navy into a smaller ares in Salamis so they could ram and sink the bigger, slower Persian boats
Persian Immortals
best soldies in theentire persian army
numbered 10,000
Xerxes special guard with a golden applie attached to the end of his spear.
Battle of Thermopylae
narrow mountain pass
7,000 Greeks including 300 Spartans fought Xerxes and his 300,000 men
--Ephialtes (traitor) told Persians of secret path around the pass
Famous People

Themistocles
Naval commander convinced Athens to evacuate the city and fight at sea.
Position their fleet in a narrow channel near the island of Salamis, south of Athens
Vocabulary

column
stone pillar that supports a temple
Most beautiful of all architectural supports, where adapted by the Romans from three principal Greek styles or orders.
tapered
not the same thickness at all points
colonnade
row of columns
cella
the interior room of any Greek temple
entablature/lintel
the part of the temple between the roof and the capital of the columns
frieze
relief sculpture on the Entablature of a temple
capital
the section of stone on top of a column
Doric
capital is one square stone slab
This is the oldest, the most substantial and the heaviest. It has not base and a very simple capital or top.
ionic
capital is a volute (curved)

Next in weight i the Ionic, which is furneshed with a base and which has a capital decorated with volutes--spiral, scroll-shaped ornaments.
Corinthian
capital is a flower/basket

The Corinthian is the lightest; it has a base and a deep capital ornamented with acanthus leaves and volutes.
volute
a scroll shaped ornament used as the capital for Ionic columns
pediment
the triangular section of a temple above the entablature
gabled
sloping, not flat
Partheon
Doric order
earliest of the three orderse developed by Greeks.
--simple column without a base, topped by a broad plain capital.
Chronology

Ionic
--second order
Used columns which were more slender and highter than the Doric.
--elaborate base and a capital carved into double scrolls that looke like ram horns.
--more elegant order than Doric
Small temples liek shrine to Athena Nike--Acropolis (427-424 BC) and later on the Erechtheum, a temple opposite the Partheon.
Chronology

Erechtheum
Temple with Ionic columns and colums carved to look like female figures
Symbolic architectural style of Partheon and the Temple of Athena Nike and Erechtheum
Combined the Dorian people of western Greek mainland and the Ionians of teh coast of Asin adross the Aegean Sea
Acropolis
The high hill in Athens where famous monuments were built after the Persian War
Essay

Style of the Parthenon
carefully planned to balanc harmouius and beauty.
Two rooms--treasury room of the Delian League
--Main room housed the collosal gold and ivory statue of Athena