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63 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Items found in wrappings: collars
Wesekh collar - Horus on both sides
Shebyu collar - New Kingdom on
Items found in wrappings: amulets
Egg - calm arrangement of the universe
Djed pillar - stability and duration
Wedjat eye of Horus - remain whole and sound
Tjet girdle of Isis - eternity, long life
Shen/heart - eternity, long life
Scarab - rebirth; writing on back; over heart
Coffin Styles
Up until mid-middle kingdom rectangular, then anthropoid.
Who are the four gods represented on the canopic jars?
Imseti - human head, south, liver
Hapi - baboon head, north, lungs
Duamtef - jackal head, east, stomach
Qebehenuef - west, intestines
What is the opening of the mouth ceremony?
It is the restoring of the 5 senses to the mummy; perfomed by a sem priest.
Sarcophagus
A stone enclosure that is either rectangular or anthropoid; used as an additional mechanism to protect the bodies.
Provisions for the dead
Drawings of: receiving gifts, companions, servants, animals (dogs), offering tables full of gifts. Remains of: jars, basketry, food & drink. Offering cults would bring offerings perpetually if persons was high status enough.
Shabti
Usually made for pharaohs in their likeness; used as servants. Often there are 365, one for each day of the year.
Ka
Separated from body at death, it is the life force of the person. It is dependent on food offerings.
Ba
The exact likeness of the person; akin to our definition of "soul." It is unrestricted in its movement between the tomb and the underworld. Must return to the corpse. Depicted as a human headed bird.
Ren
The name of the person. If the name survives, so do they. Why pharaohs put their names everywhere.
Book of the Dead
"The spell for coming forth by day." 189 chapters of spells and instructions for how to travel safely through the underworld
Negative Confession
Depicted on the papyrus of Hunefer; it is the proclamation of innocence in front of 42 gods/judges. One spell for each god to appease them.
Weighing the Heart Ceremony
Occurs in the hall of Ma'at. It is the ultimate test of worthiness. If the individual's heart weighs less than the feather of truth, they can go on. If it is not, their heart is eaten by Ammut the gobbler.
What rights did women have?
To own land and businesses.
To have a will.
To decide inheritances.
To hold a job.
To petition for divorce.
Men's Jobs
Craftsmen
Political official
Soldier
Priest
Scribe
Farmer/Fisherman
Merchant
Ages for Marriage
Women 12 - 17
Men 17 - 19
What kinds of prostitution were there?
Sacred prostitutes lived in temples are were not paid for their services. They wore fishnet dresses and had a tattoo of Bes on their thigh.
Street prostitutes were a necessary evil, and were often found where there were many soldiers and sailors. They were paid for service.
What toys and games were played?
Board games: hounds and jackals, senet, mehen.
Toys: dolls, toys with wheels, balls of linen.
What instruments were played?
Lute, Lyre, castanets, sistrum, drums, harp, double flute, trumpet.
What are considered to be aphrodisiacs?
Lettuce and fennel
Onion and ginger
Pomegranates
Coriander in wine
Radishes
Water Lily
How do we see sexuality as part of religion?
Entire creation story is sexual; Ra masturbates Shu & Tefnut into existence. Nut & Geb are in a constant state of intercourse. Tales of seduction and homosexuality also present.
Who was the god of reproduction?
Min
Amun-min when wearing the double feather crown.
Associated with lettuce.
Tomb of the Two Brothers
5th dynasty tomb, located in Saqqara.
Shows two men in poses usually reserved for a husband and wife. They both held the title "Overseer of the Manicurists in the Palace of the King."
Turin Papyrus
Found in Deir el Medina; most erotic papyrus every found. Debate on whether it represents a brothel, fantasy, humorous art, political satire, or social commentary. Now in Museo Egizio, Turin, Italy.
What kinds of sexually explicit art have been found?
Graffiti and iconography from temples, phallic art pieces, love songs and poetry, Hatshepsut and her lover in the cave, and ostraca from Deir el Medina.
What two festivals are associated with sexual activity?
Beautiful Embrace - for Hathor, lasted 14 days.

Cult of Apis - worship of bulls; thought to bring fertility.
What items were included in the provisions for the dead to promote sex in the afterlife?
Fertility dolls, frogs, phallic offerings, false penises and nipples on mummies.
What pharaoh is attributed with restoring order at the end of the 1st Intermediate period?
Mentuhotep II restores order, trade, and irrigation.
Where is Mentuhotep II's mortuary temple/tomb? What is significant about it?
Deir el Bahari, next to Hatshepsut's temple.

Unique because he was actually buried in his mortuary temple.
Amenemhet I
12th Dynasty, Middle Kingdom
Not of royal blood
Moved capital to It-towy
Aggressive expansionist policies
Was assassinated by gaurds
**Introduced co-regency
Senusret I or Sesostris I
12th Dynasty, Middle Kingdom
Continued expansionist policies
Established southern border at Buhen
Moved west into Libya
Established relationships with Syria and Canaan
Ambitious building project - Temple of Re-Atum @ Heliopolis, White Chapel @ Karnak
Senusret III
12th Dynasty, Middle Kingdom
Colonizes Nubia
Builds fortresses along the Nile
Abolishes power and privileges of the nobles
New middle class arises
Amenemhet III
12th Dynasty, Middle Kingdom
Black Pyramid at Dashur
2nd pyramid (labryrinth) at Hawara; first tomb to incorporate security features
When was pyramid building resurrected? Why are these pyramids in bad shape today?
During the 12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom. They are built from mud-brick, so the outsides of them have not survived well. Located in el Lisht, Dashur, and Lahun (Fayoum).
Tombs of the Middle Kingdom at Deir al Bersha, Beni Hassan, and Luxor are all known for what?
These tombs have a high level of preservation of images and they show everyday life. Wrestling, weaving, the entrance of the Hyksos into Egypt, reed boats and fishing techniques, etc.
Why do we see the decline of the Middle Kingdom?
Weak rulers during the 13th &14th dynasties, two capitals (It-towy and el Lisht), during the 14th dynasty Xois province (delta) breaks away where the foreigners enter Egypt and built a power base. Hyksos princes take over-16th Dynasty.
What foreign group invades Egypt and takes over during the 2nd Intermediate period? How long did they rule?
The Hyksos rule for about 100 years; dynasties 16 - 17.
What new military technology did the Hyksos bring?
Forts (that Egyptians later continued to use).
Khepesh sword
Composite bow
Horse drawn chariot
What cultural innovations did the Hyksos bring?
Metalworking skills
Vertical loom system
Humped cattle
Lyre
Lute
How were the Hyksos finally chased out of Egypt?
During the 17th dynasty a family rose to power in Thebes (the Hyksos didn't expand that far south) and challenges them. Ahmose I ousted them, and chased them into Palestine.
Describe military structure before the New Kingdom.
No standing army.
Governors expected to amass volunteers in the event of war.
Open to abuse from upper classes.
Middle Kingdom had a royal army that was volunteer and conscription.
Describe the military of the New Kingdom period.
No longer auxiliary.
Large, professional army.
Full conscription.
Specialized units.
Hierarchy.
Describe military tactics during the New Kingdom.
Did not fight open-plain battles (except Ramesses II Battle of Kadesh).
Subdue weaker state, one city at a time.
Take city by siege or wait them out.
War of attrition - wear them down by continual losses until they give up.
What was a soldiers uniform?
Kilt with front tab.
Weapons: spears, bows, arrows, shields (if not an archer).
What weapons does the military use?
Composite bow
Double bow
Spears
Shields
Swords
How was the military organized?
Pharaoh was supreme commander of the military; would fight with them.
Under him is the 4 commander-in-chiefs of each division; figure heads, did not fight.
(Divisions Amun, Seth, Ptah, Re)
Division - 5000
Company - 250
Platoon - 50
How was the chariot changed from the Syrian chariot?
Used lighter and stronger wood (from cedar to birch and ash).
Tough leather platform added to absorb shock.
Wheels were reinforced with more spokes.
What are Egypt's natural defenses?
North - Mediterranean Sea
West - Western Desert
East - Sinai Desert
South - Cataracts of the Nile
Describe life as a soldier.
Assigned to a post for up to 6 years.
Soldiers were taken care of; well fed, housed.
Bodies brought back after battle.
Worst assignment: Western Desert
What pharaoh drove out the Hyksos? What evidence do we have to suggest this was a long process?
Amosis I
His father and brother had fought the Hyksos for many years.
He became pharaoh at 10, drove them out 16 years later.
Why is the 18th Dynasty referred to as "The Golden Age?"
Due to the large amount of area under the control or influence of Egypt, there were many rulers paying tribute to the Egyptian government. Wealth was pouring into Egypt during this time.
Amenhotep I
18th Dynasty, New Kingdom.
Military campaigns into Syria, Palestine.
First to establish monumental building at Temple of Karnak.
Died childless.
Tuthmosis I
18th Dynasty, New Kingdom.
Commoner by birth.
Rose to power in the military.
Married Amenhotep I's sister.
Establishes Valley of the Kings as important necropolis.
Tuthmosis II
18th Dynasty, New Kingdom.
Married to half-sister Hatshepsut.
Physically weak.
Tried to name son to throne before death, son was too young.
Hatshepsut
18th Dynasty, New Kingdom.
Names herself as pharaoh because her step-son was too young to rule.
Known for expeditions to the land of Punt*, Sinai, Palestine.
Large funerary temple at Deir el Bahari (next to Mentuhotep II).
Tuthmosis III
18th Dynasty, New Kingdom.
Regains power from Hatshepsut.
Extends kingdom into Sinai.
Egypt is at its largest during this time.
Defeated Mitannians.
Destroys almost all of Hatshepsut's monuments, pictures, and cartouches.
Amenhotep III
18th Dynasty, New Kingdom.
Married to Tiye (she is not royal).
Colossi of Memnon.
Statues of the couple show them equal in height.
Tiye may have been Nubian; was Tut's grandmother.
Aten becomes prominent god.
Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten
18th Dynasty, New Kingdom.
"Heretic King"
Introduces monotheism; worship of Aten.
Establishes capital at Amarna.
Married to Nefertiti.
All are depicted with elongated heads and exaggerated secondary sex characteristics.
Tutankhamun
18th Dynasty, New Kingdom.
Son of Akhenaten and lesser wife, Kiya?
Rises to throne at age 9; Nefertit's father was his advisor.
Moves capital back to Thebes.
Dies at age 19.
Reeder Article
"Same Sex Desire..." Tomb is blatantly that of two lovers, not of brothers as once thought. There is reference to the wives, but in all important banquet and intimate scenes, it is the two men alone. There is also reference to mythology involving Horus and Seth.
Monserrat Article
"Sex in Graeco-Roman Egypt"
Sex is a necessary therapy for people to maintain good health. The way that people adorn their bodies affects how they experience the world.
Robins Article
"Women in Ancient Egypt" Women were allowed to inherit property, decide inheritance, own slaves, participate in business deals, acquire debts, and were responsible for their own actions. But, could the records have been kept because these were rare cases? Did women's rights extend beyond theory for everyone?