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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a system of communication using sounds or gestures that are put together in meaningful ways according to a set of rules
instinctive sounds or gesturs that have a natural or self evident meaning
the modern scientific study of all aspects of language
descriptiove lang
the branch of ling that involves unraveling a lang by recording, describingm and analysing all of its features
the systematic identification and description of distinctive speech sounds in a lang.
the study of lang sounds
the smallest units of sounds that make a difference in meanign in a lang
the study of the patterns or rules of word formation in a lang.
the smallest unit of sounds that carry a meaing in lang. they are distictfrom phonemes but have no meaning
frame substitution
a method used to identify the syntactic units of lang.
patterns or rules for hte formation of phrases and sentances in a lang.
entire formal structure of a lang,
form classes
the parts of speech or categories of words that work the same way in any sentance such as nouns, verbs, and adj.
facial expressions and bodily postures and motions that convey intended as well as subconscious messages.
system of notating and analysing postures facial expressions and body motions that convey messages.
cross cult. study of humankind perception and use of space
voice effects that accompany lang. and convey meaning. ie giggling, groaning, signing pitch and tempo
voice qualitities
speakers boice with pitch , artic. tempo and resoinance
noises that we make vocal excersizes
vocal character
laughing, crying, yawning
vocal qualifiers
modify urrances in terms of intensity. volume pitch , tempo
vocal segregates
respemble the sound of lang but dont appear in sequence.
tonal lang
lang in which sound pitch of a spoken work is an essential part of its pronounciation
historical ling.
branch of ling. that studies histories and relatioships among lang both living and dead.
lang family
group of lang descended from a single ancestral lang
linguistic divergence
the development of different lang frmo a sings ancestral lang.
method for identifying the approx. time that lang. branched off from a commmon ancestor . based on analy. core vocab!
core vocab.
the most basic and long lasting words in any lang.
lang in which the syntax and vocab of two other lang. are simplified and combigned
a lang that has beocme the motehr tongue of society
two lang. combign into one mother lang
linguistics nationalism
attempt by ethnic minorities and even contries to proclaim indep. by purging their lang of foreign terms.
a branch of ling. that studies the relationship be lang and culture
ling. relativity
the proposition that lang plaus a fundamental role in shaping hte way members of a society think and behave
gendered speech
distinct male nad female syntax exhibited in various lang. around the world
varying forms of a lang that reflect partic. regions, occupations, or social classes nad that are similar enough to be mutauly intelligible.
code switching
the process of changintg from one lang or dialect to antoher.
the ability to refer to things and events removed in time in space
writing system
a set of visible or tactile signs used to represent units of lang in a systematic way.
series of sumbols represeting the soudns of a lang. arranged in a trad. order.
self awareness
ability to identify onesself as an individual, to reflect on oneself and to evaluate onesself.
naming ceremony-
a special event or ritual to mark the naming of a child.
the distinctive way a person thinks, feels and behaves
dependance traingin
child rearing prac. that foster compliance in the performace of assigned tasks and dependance on the deomestic group rahter then reliance on oneself.
indep. training
child rearing prac. that promote indep, self reliace, and personal achiement on the part of the child.
modal personality
the body of character trais that occur with the hiest frequency in a cultually bounded popuilarity
core values
these values especially promoted by a partic. culture.
peopkle born with sex organ for not exclusivly male or female
ppl who change their sexes.
ethic psychoses
mental disorders sopecific to partic. ethnic groups
ethnic psychoses
mental disorders specific to partic ethnic groups.
cultural adaptation
a complex of ideas, activities, and technologies that enable people to survive and even thrive.
the cultivation of crops with simple hand tools such as digging sticks of hoes
a system or a fuctioning whole cimposed of both hteh natural exvironment and all the organizsms living within it.
cultual ecology
the dynamic interaction of specific cultures with their environments
the ethnocentric notion that humans are moving foward to a higher more advanced stage in their development toward perfection
convergent evolution
in cultural evolution, the development of similar cutlural adaptations to similar environmental conditions by different peoples with different ancestral cultures.
parallel evolution
in cultural evolution the development of similar cultural adaptations to similar environmental conditions by people whose ancestral cultures were already somewhat alike
culture area
a geographic region in which a number of societies sollow similar patterns of life.
culture types
concerns a particular technolgy and its relationship with environmental features
cultural core
cutlural features that are fundamental in the societies way of making its living- including food producing techniques, knoledge of available resources, and work arrangments involved in applying those techniques to the local environment
food foraging
hunting, fishingm gathering wild plant foods.
carrying capacity
the number of ppl that the availble resources can support at a given level of food gathering techniques
density of social relations
the number and intensity of interactuions among the members of a camp
neolithic revolution
hte profound culture change associated with the early domestication of plans and animals
swidden farming
slash and burn technique. an extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut, the slash is subsequently burned and crops then planted among hte ashes
intensive agriculture
crop cultivation using technologies other then hand tools such as irrigationm, fertilizers and the wooden or metal plow pulled by harnessed draft animals
breeding adn managing of herds of domesticated grazing animals such as goats, sheep, cattle, llanas, or camels
among pastoralists the grazing of animals in low steppe lands in the winter and then moving to high pastures on the plateaus in the summer.
the kinds of urban settlements that are cheractoeristic of nonindustrial civilizations