Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cerebellum Structures
- 2 hemispheres, R + L
- Transverse fissure-seperates cerebellum and cerebrum
- Cerebral cortex - outer and grey
- Inferior cerebellar penduncles - connect cerebellum to medulla
- middle inferior cerebellar peduncles - connect cerebellum to pons
- superior cerebellar peduncles - connect cerebellum to midbrain
Cerebellum Functions
- Maintain balance and coordination
- Recieves sensory input from eyes, inner ear and proprioceptors in muscles, tendons and joints
Cerebellum Damage
loss and balance and cordination - called ataxia
Things Making Up Diencephalon:
(from prosencephalon)
A. Optic Chiasm
B. Infundibulum and pituitary gland
C. Mamillary Body
D. Pineal Gland
E. Thalamus
F. Hypothalamus
Optic Chiasm
2 optic nevers that decussate
Infundibulum and Pituitary
Infundibulum connects pituitart to brain's hypothalamus.
Pituitary - endocrine gland
Mamillary Body
Olfactory Reflexes
Pineal Gland - Melatonin
- hormone
- secretion is increased with dark, and decreases with light
- Function: effects mood. Helps establish circadian rythm
Pineal Gland - SAD
Seasonsal Affective Disorder
- seasonal depression
- Tx: phototherapy
Thalamus - Location
Makes up most of diencephalon
- surrounds 3rd ventricle
Thalamus Structure
- Lots of Nuclei
- Pierces thru 3rd ventricle
Thalamus Functions
1. "Sensory Relay" - relays sensory input, EXCEPT OLFACTION to the cerebrum

2. Provides a vague awareness of sensation from skin
Hypothalamus - Location
below thalamus
Hypothalamus - Structure
Hypothalamus - Functions
1. H20 balance
2. Thermostat
3. Has body's thirst, hunger, and satiety center
4. Total control over pituitary gland
Cerebrum - Facts
from prosencephalon

Things That Can Cross BBB:

Astrocytes help to make it
Transient Ischemic Attack
Temporary decreased blood flow to brain

TIA = Mini Stroke

Neuron's DO NOT die
Cerebro-Vascular Acccident
Cut off and decrease blood and NUERONS DIE (amiotic)

S/S: paralysis, speech loss, memory loss, personality change
Cerebrum Terms
Gyrus - high point

Sulcus - shallow groove

Fissure - deep groove

Cortex - outer covering of organ
Cerebrum - Structure
1. R & L hemispheres

2. Longitudinal fissure seperates R&L hemispheres; has dura matter called falx cerebri

3. Transverse fissure seperates cerebrum from cerebellum; contains dura matter called tentorium

4. Lateral fissure seperates temporal lobe from frontal and parietal

5. Central Sulcus seperates frontal and parietal lobes

6. Pre-central gyrus - on frontal, anterior to central sulcus

7. Post-central gyrus - on parietal, posterior to central sulcus

8. Lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, and insula (deep inside brain)

9. Corpus collosum is white and interconnects R&L hemispheres
Association Tract In Cerebrum
from gyrus to gyrus - ipsilaterally
Commissure Tract In Cerebrum
from hemisphere to hemisphere , contralateral
Projection Tract In Cerebrum
Between brain and cord as ascending and descending tracts
Cerebrum Functions
Sensory Function
Interprets sensory input from opposite side of body
Motor Function
Intiate muscle contraction on opposite side of body
Association Function
- reading
- spelling
- writing
- language
- speech
- memory
- logic
- analysis
- reasoning
- personality
Motor Areas of Cerebrum
1. Primary Motor Cortex
2. Broca's Area
3. Fontral Eye Field
Primary Motor Cortex of Cerebrum
precentral gyrus on frontal

Has CB of upper motor neurons, axons run down brain, towards medulla as corticospinal tract. Axons decussate in medulla pyramids, then continue down cord as corticospinal tract. End by synapsing w/ lower motor nuerons that stimulate skeletal muscle
Broca's Area of Cerebrum
Control's speech and muscles move for speech.
Most people - left broca's is dominant that helps articulate words
Right Brocas is non-dominant and is for emotional aspect
Frontal Eye Field of Cerebrum
controls voluntary movement of eyes
Sensory Areas
1. Somatosensory Cortex
2. Visual Cortex
3. Auditory Cortex
4. Olfactory Cortex
5. Gustatory Cortex
Somatosensory Cortex
post-central gyrus on parietal lobe

Interprets input from skin on contralateral side.

Large areas have many sensory neurons, therefore have fine, exact sensations
Visual Cortex
Recieves and Interprets input from eyes
Auditory Cortex
recieves and interprets input from ears
Olfactory Cortex
recieves and interprets input from nose
Gustatory Cortex
recieves and interprets input from taste
Assocation Areas - Wernicke's area
Involved with auditory comprehension
Basal Nuclei Facts
Deep in cerebral hemisphere

corpus striatum=striped body
Things Making Up Basal Nuclei
- Caudate Nucleus
- Lentiform Nucleus
- Globus Pallidus
- Putamen
- Substantia Nigra
Basal Nuclei Functions
1. Inhibts excressive motor activity
2. Controls gross automatic movements
3. Intiates some movements using dopamine
Due to: decreased dopamine with age

Typical onset = ~ 60 years

S/S tremors, rigidity and slow to start movements
Hemisphere Dominance - Left
Dominant in most people - academic, language and math
Hemisphere Dominance - Right
Non dominant in most people - creative, music, art, 3-D visualization, emotion
Memory - Intermediate and Short Term
scattered throughout all lobes

seconds - minutes

good for remembering small amounts of info
Recent Memory
hours - days

review and repitition

review, reptition and assocation
Locations of memory
1. Amygdala and hippocampus (limbic system) transfer memory from one category to another

2. Cerebral Cortex is good for language memory

3. Cerebellum helps remember motor skills
Nervous Systems Ability To Change
Can change by:

1. Making new synapses with collaterals

2. Releasing more NT

3. Increases NT receptors
Limbic System - Location
polysynaptic netowrk deep in cerebrum
Limbic system - Function
- primitive part of brain
- causes one to act out of emotion and satisfy basic body needs
- cerebrum keeps limbic system in check