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56 Cards in this Set

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systole
the period of time during which the heart is contracting.The time when the walls of the ventricles are contracting and the chambers are emptying of blood. syus
systolic blood pressure
measure of pressure while its contracting
diastole
when walls of chambers of ventricles are relaxed and filling with blood.
diastolic blood pressure
pressure of blood while its still.
starlings heart law
helps to describe the heart as having built in adjusting mechanism.
volume on venous return
blood returning to right atrium. Whenever more active venous return increases.
ventricular stretch
increased when active and venous return increased
cardiac output
measure of blood ejected from heart. about 5-5.5 liters. measure to efficiency of pump.
where are decisions regarding heart function made?
brainstem (midbrain, pons, and medulla oblangata)
sympathetic (adrenergic) stimulation of the heart
-ACTIVE
-helps to adjust cardiac function
-typically release norepinepherine which has impact on the workings of the ventricles
sympathetic responses
1. increased heart rate (positive chonotropic time)
2. increased strength of contraction (positive inotropic effect)
3. decreased AV node delay/a faster conduction time
4. increase in vasculation of coronary arteries/ skeletal muscle/live/adipose
5. increased vasoconstriction of digestive visceral kidneys/skin.
parasympathetic(cholinergic) stimulation
typically release acetylcholine which has impact on the workings of SA/AV node.
parasympathetic responses
1. decreased heart rate (negative chonotropic effect)
2. decreased stength of contraction (negative inotropic effect).
3. increased Av node delay/slower conduction time
pulmonary ventilation
increasing air flow into/back out of lungs. it's from this air oxygen is released.
external respiration
-takes places deep w/i the lungs
-between air sacs of the lungs (alveoli) and the blood vessels that surround them (capillaries).
-the first place we see an exchange of gases
internal respiration
the exchange of gases b/w capillaries and our cells that they surround
celllar respiration
-the reason we breathe
-takes place in the mitochondria
-internal/external resp is what makes sure that cellular resp has its oxygen
-most things occuring here are aerobic respiration
conducting zone
any parts of respiratory system that conduct air. INCLUDE: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi
respiratory zone
-NO SMOKING ZONE
- those features where u do see an exchange of gas
-INCLUDE: bronchioles, alveoli
order which air flows in
1. nose
2. pharynx
3. larynx
4. trachea
5. bronchi
6. bronchioles
7. lungs
nose
breathing in through the nose allows for moistening of air, warms air, filters air, contribution to speech, and smell
pharynx
makes up throat, its a tubular structure subdivided into nasopharynx (part behind nose), oropharynx (part behind mouth), laryngopharynx (behind larynx)
larynx
part of respiratory system that deals w/ vocals. held into position by hyoid bone and wallas are made of thyroid cartilage (adams apple) and crycoid cartilage.
vocal folds
vibration mechanisms in the larynx
GLOTTIS
formal opening to airway
epiglottis
elastic cartilage about glottis prevents materials from getting into airway.
trachea
our windpipe, tubes provide for ventilation. lining of internal surface of walls in pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. walls are maintained by c-shaped ring (hyaline cartilage) the esophogus fits into
bronchi
divided into primary (serves lungs), secondary (lobar) serves each lobe of the lung, and tertiary (segmental) serve the segments of the lobes of the lungs
bronchioles
small bronchi, tiny tubes or airways.
-terminal the last part of conducting zone, conducting takes place here
-respiratory provide for both conduction/respiration
lungs
major organs of respiratory system when gas exchange takes place. the lungs are divided into lobes 2 on the left and 3 on the right.
bronchopulmonary segments
compartments that lobes of the lungs are divided into which are separated from one another by walls of connective tissue septa. this allows for better expansion or elasticity
visceral pleura
serous membrane covering surface of each lung
parietal pleura
serous membrane in lining of walls of lungs
pleural (serous) fluid
helps to lubricate surfaces and allow for movememnt
pumlonary arteries
moves deoxygenated blood to the lungs, then branch to form a netowkr of arterioles and then to form cappillaries which is where all exchanges of gas takes place. eventually blood returns to the heart by way of the venules.
pulmonary ventilation
moving air into/out of lungs
medullary respiratory center
the decision making area allowing to take next breath on/off switch. under control of medulla oblangata
pneumotaxis respiratory center and apneustic respiratory center
helps to shorten period of time for inspiration. under control of the pons
functions of pulmonary ventilation
1. increase % of blood oxygen
2. decrease % of blood carbon dioxide
3. thermoregulation
4. maintain water balance
inspiration (inhalation)
1. diaphram is under control of phrenic nerve and regulated contractions while external intercostal muscles are under control of intercostal nerves.
2. larger thoracic cavity increae volume
3. decrease alveolar air pressure (intrapulmonic air pressure)
4. inflow of air
pulmonary ventilation
moving air into/out of lungs
medullary respiratory center
the decision making area allowing to take next breath on/off switch. under control of medulla oblangata
pneumotaxis respiratory center and apneustic respiratory center
helps to shorten period of time for inspiration. under control of the pons
functions of pulmonary ventilation
1. increase % of blood oxygen
2. decrease % of blood carbon dioxide
3. thermoregulation
4. maintain water balance
inspiration (inhalation)
1. diaphram is under control of phrenic nerve and regulated contractions while external intercostal muscles are under control of intercostal nerves.
2. larger thoracic cavity increae volume
3. decrease alveolar air pressure (intrapulmonic air pressure)
4. inflow of air
5. lungs inflat eand expand
expiration (exhalation)
1. recoil of elastic tissues of thorax (elasticity)
2. relaxation of inspiratory muscle
3. smaller thorax cavity DECREASE VOLUME
4. INCREASES alveolar (intrapulmonic) air PRESSURE
5. air flows out from high pressure to low pressure.
respiratory reserve volume
-3100 ml
-volume air you can ihale above and beyond normal tidal volume
tidal volume
-500 ml
-the amt of air that can be forced out of thelungs at the end of maximal inspiration
expiratory reserve volume
-1200 ml
-The amount of additional air that can be breathed out after normal expiration.
residual volume
-1200 ml
-the amt of air left in lungs after maximal exhalation
vital capacity
-4800 ml
-IRV + TV + ERV
TOTAL LUNG CAPACITY
-6000 ML
-GRAND TOTAL
P-WAVE OF EKG
DEPOLARIZATION OF THE ATRIA
QRS COMPLEX OF EKG
VENTRICULAR DEPOLARIZATION
T-WAVE OF EKG
UNIT OF FREQUENCY EQUAL TO 1 CYCLE PER SECOND
P-R INTERVAL OF EKG
NORMALLY .12-.20 SECONDS DURATION
- The time elapsing between the beginning of the P wave and the beginning of the QRS complex in an electrocardiogram; it corresponds to the atriocarotid interval of the venous pulse.