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41 Cards in this Set

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How do cells communicate at the local level?

Long distance?
-via cell surface molecules (eg. intergrins) and by gap junctions

-chemical messengers (in the blood)
What do endocrine organs secrete their hormones into?
The blood
Name the 5 primary endocrine glands
-Pituitary (Hypophysis)
-thyroid
-parathyroids
-Islets of Langerhans (in Pancreas)
-adrenal
Name 6 other organs (besides the main endocrine organs) that secrete hormones
-heart
-kidney
-testes
-ovaries
-intestines
-brain
The heart secretes what
atrial natriuretic hormone (effects salt secretion in kidney)
Kidneys secrete _________, ____________
erythropoietin (regs blood cell production), renin
Testes secrete ________.


Ovaries secrete ___________.
testosteron


estrogens, progesterone
Intestines secrete _______, _____________, __________.
gastrin (G cells in duodenum),
secretin (S cells in Crypts of Leiberkuhn: regulates pH), cholecystokinin (stims digestion of fat and protein)
Brain secretes __________.
Hypothalamic releasing factors (control pituitary)
Discuss the posterior pituitary
Neurohypophysis:
-neuroglia cells (pituicytes) derived from brain
-also has blood vessels, fibroblasts, nerve endings
-STORES vassopressin, oxytocin
Summarize traits of the Adenohypophysis
Adenohypophysis:
-MAKES GH, PRL (prolactin), ACTH, MSH (melanocyte stim hormone), beta-endorphins, TSH, FSH, LH
Nerve endings in the neurohypophysis originate where?

What do they contain?
-cells in the hypothalamus

-Oxytocin, vasopressin
cells that produce growth hormone?

Prolactin (PRL)
-somatotrophes

-lactotrophs
Cells that produce thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)?

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)/Luteinizing hormone (LH)?
-thyrptrophs

-gonadotrophs
What regulates the secretion of pituitary hormones?
The hypothalamus through hypothalamic Releasing Factors
Where are hypothalamic releasing factors released into?
Hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system (directly into its blood)
Thyroid secretes ____. The storage form is an __________ called ___________, or ________ by histologists
-T3, T4, (and calcitonin)
-iodinated protein (tyrosine)
-thyroglubulin
-colloid
Thyroid is composed of ________ epithelium
cuboidal
C cells:
AKA
misc
-"parafollicular cells"
-found in thyroid
-secrete calcitonin, which regulates calcium metabolism ("tones down" blood calcium)
Parathyroid glands features


What two cells and what do they do?
-4 small glands on back of thyroid
-Stim osteoblasts to stim osteoclasts to break down more bone (upregulates blood calcium)
-Chief cells secrete the PTH
-Oxyphil cells - maybe inactive chief cells
Islets of Langerhans
-found in pancreas
Secretes:
-insulin (beta cells)
-glucagon (alpha cells)
somatostatin (delta cells)
Adrenal gland cortex
-Zona glomerulus -> mineralcorticoids (eg. aldosterone) ("salt")
-Zona Fasticularis -> glucocorticoids (ups glucose, glycogen, protein, lipid breakdown) ("sugar")
-Zona Reticularis -> androgens (sex)
Adrenal gland medulla:
____ Secretes ______
Regulates (3)
Secretes:
Chromaphin (secretes) -adrenaline (epinephrine)
-noradrenaline (norepinephrine)
-regulates liver, blood pressure, "fight or flight"
hypothalamohypophyseal portal system
connects hypothalamus and pituitary. Hormones secreted in the hypothalamus are carried to the adenohypophysis and stim release of anterior pituitary hormones
3 divisions of adenohypophysis
(ant. pituitary)
-pars distalis
-pars tuberalis
-pars intermedia
2 divisions of the neurohypophysis
(post. pituitary)
-pars nervosa
-neural stalk
Hormones secreted by the ant. pituitary and the cells which produce them
-growth hormone (GH) -> somatotrophs
-prolactin (PRL) -> lactotrophs
-Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), melanocyte stim. hormone (MSH) -> corticotrophs
Thyroid stim. hormone (TSH) ->
thyrotrophs
Follicle stim. hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) -> gonadotrophs
Hormones released by the post. pituitary gland
vasopressin (ADH) - retention of H2O, vasoconstriction of vascular smooth muscle
oxytocin - milk ejection (mammory gland) and uterus (contractions?)
Thyroid hormones
T3, T4, Calcitonin
Calcitonin is produced by _______
C cells in Thyroid
PTH (3)
-produced by parathyroid (4 bumps)
-ups bone resorption
-influences CA++ excretion in urine
-stim's formation of vita D
Secreting cells of the parathyroid
-chief cells (primarily).
-at puberty oxyphil cells appear.
_______ cells produce insulin in the _________. These cells are ______ % of all the cells. Insulin does what?
-beta cells; pancreas (islets of Langerhans); 2/3rds

-prompts cells to intake glucose when blood levels are high
________ cells produce glucagon, which _______________
alpha cells; stims liver to produce more glucose (from glycogen) when blood sugar is low.
What endocrine cells are found in the pancreas? (4)
alpha (glucagon), beta (insulin), delta (somatostatin), pp cells (pancreatic polypeptide hormone)
What makes ADH
(SONA) Supraoptic nucleus
What produces oxytocin
paraventricular nucleus
Where are ADH and oxytocin stored in the post pituitary
Herring bodies
What are pituacytes
-glial cells
-involved in nutrition, maintenance
Which cells of the ant pit produce which hormones?
(B-FLAT PeG)
Basophils:
-FSH
-LH
-ACTH
-TSH

Acidophiles:
-Prolactin
(-e)
-GH
Which zone of the adrenal gland does ACTH effect
Zona fasciculitis -> glucocorticoids