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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What does a "popeye" muscle indicate?
a proximal rupture of the long head of the bicep
What does scapular winging indicate?
serratus anterior injury due to long thoracic nerve injury
What does a "piano key" sign or "tenting" indicate?
acromioclavicular separation or clavical fracture
What are some tests that can be done to evaluate for impingement syndrome?
• impingement sign: passive forward flexion; (+) pain > 90º
• Hawkins Test: passive forward flex to 90º and internal rotation; pain = impingement syndrome
What is the apprehension test?
• abduction to 90º and external rotation
• positive apprehension test = anterior shoulder instability
What is the difference between the anatomical and surgical neck?
• the anatomical neck is directly distal to the head of the humerus
• the surgical neck is distal to the anatomical neck, below the greater and lesser tubercles
The olecranon is a part of which bone?
What is the treatment for shoulder dislocation?
• closed reduction
• immobilization in internal rotation
List 5 types of closed reduction
• stimson maneuver: pt prone on table with weight on arm
• mitch maneuver
• hippocratic maneuver: examiner places sole of foot in axilla
• traction/countertraction
• scapular manipulation: stimson maneuver with medial manipulation of the tip of scapula
What are 2 lesions associated with recurrent shoulder dislocations?
• Bankhart lesion: anterior capsular injury associated with a tear of the glenoid labrum
• Hill-Sachs lesion: compression fracture of the articular surface of the humeral head
What is the most common bone in the body fractured?
What is weakest part of the clavicle?
the junction of the middle and lateral thirds
Name and describe the 3 classes of clavicle fractures
• Class A: middle third fracture
• Class B: distal third fracture
• Class C: proximal third fracture
What is the mechanism of injury for AC separation?
fall onto point of shoulder
What is the textbook sign for AC separation on physical exam?
tenderness at the AC junction
What are bursa?
• closed, round, flattened sacs that separate bare areas of bone from overlapping muscles (deep bursae) or separate skin and tendon (superficial bursae)
• function to reduce friction and allow a greater range of movement when muscle contracts
What muscles make up the rotator cuff?
supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis
A "waiter's tip" position or Erb-Duchenne palsy is caused by injury to which nerves?
C5 & C6
A "claw hand" or Klumpke paralysis is due to injury to which nerves?
What is a Yergason test?
• resisted supination test
• used to test for bicipital tendonitis
Which nerve crosses over the "funny bone"?
ulnar nerve
A fracture of the humerus at the surgical neck can injure which nerve?
axillary nerve
A fracture of the humerus at the radial groove can injure which nerve?
radial nerve
A fracture at the distal end of the humerus can injure which nerve?
median nerve
A fracture of the humerus at the medial epicondyle can injure which nerve?
ulnar nerve
What is the treatment for midshaft humerus fracture?
• coaptation splint
• change to Sarmiento brace after 2 weeks
Which part of the humerus articulates with the radial head?
Which part of the humerus articulates with the ulna?
trochlea and olecranon fossa
What is a Nursemaid's elbow?
subluxation of the radial head from the annular ligament
What 2 tendons form the snuffbox?
extensor pollicis brevis tendon and extensor pollicis longus tendon
What is lateral epicondylitis?
• pain at the lateral humeral epicondyle, reproduced by extending the wrist against resistance
• aka Tennis elbow
• seen in patients who perform repetitive wrist extension
What is medial epicondylitis?
• pain at the medial humeral epicondyle
• seen in patients who golf, or perform throwing sports, such as baseball, football, javelin
What is a Die Punch Fracture?
intra-articular distal radius fracture with impaction of the dorsal aspect of the lunate fossa
What is the definitive treatment for a scaphoid fracture?
• long arm thumb spica cast x 4-8 weeks
• if scaphoid is displaced, may require ORIF
What is a Boutonneiere Deformity?
• a flexed PIP joint & a hyperextended DIP joint
• caused by a central slip of the extensor digitorum communis tendon from its insertion at the dorsal base of the middle phalanx
What is a mallet finger?
• flexion at the DIP joint & extension or hyperextension at the PIP joint
• caused by a disruption of the extensor tendon over the distal phalanx
What is flexor tenosynovitis?
infection of the digital synovial sheaths
What are the 4 classic findings for diagnosis of flexor tenosynovitis?
• tenderness over flexor tendon sheath
• symmetric swelling of the finger (sausage finger)
• pain with passive extension
• flexed posture of the involved digit at rest
What is trigger finger?
• a painful condition caused by a narrowing of the sheath that surrounds the finger tendon
• inflamed nodule of tendon gets trapped behind tendon sheath and finger becomes stuck in flexed position
Which muscles allow for abduction and adduction of the hand?
lumbrical muscles
What is De Qyervain's Tenosynovitis?
• an entrapment tendonitis of the tendons contained within the first dorsal compartment at the wrist
• results in pain with thumb motion
What is the Finkelstein test?
• the most classic finding in De Quervain tenosynovitis is a positive Finkelstein test
• have the patient make a fist with the thumb inside the fingers
• the clinician applies passive ulnar deviation of the wrist to reproduce the chief complaint of dorsolateral wrist pain
What is paronychia?
• a superficial infection of the epithelium lateral to the nail plate
• most frequently caused by staphylococci
What is a felon?
• closed-space infections of the fingertip pulp
• infection occuring within these fingertip pulp compartments can lead to abscess formation, edema, and increased pressure in a closed space
• can compromise blood flow and lead to necrosis of the skin and pulp
What is Herpetic Whitlow?
• an intense, painful skin infection caused by the herpes simplex virus
• tiny fluid-filled blebs (vesicles) on the fingers
• fingertip is sore and swollen but is not as firmas in a felon
What parts of the hand does the radial nerve innervate?
• sensation to the dorsum of the hand on the radial side
• sensation 3rd metacarpal, dorsal thumb, index, and middle fingers as far as the distal phalanges
• evaluate motor by testing thumb extension (hitchhiking)
What part of the hand does the ulnar nerve innervate?
- sensation to the ulnar side of hand (dorsal & palmar) of the pinkie and half of the ring finger
What part of the hand does the median nerve innervate?
• palmar sufrace of thumb, index, middle and half of ring finger
• may supply dorsum of terminal phalanges of these fingers
What causes Thoracic Outlet Syndrome?
irritation of C8 and T1
What does the musculocutaneous nerve innervate?
the radial side of the forearm
What is Carpal Tunnel?
a syndrome characterized by pain, paresthesias, and weakness in the median nerve distribution of the hand
What are 2 tests used to evaluate for Carpal Tunnel?
Tinel's test and Phalen's Test
What is Cubital Tunnel Syndrome?
pressure on the "funny bone" causing pain, paresthesia to the ulnar nerve distribution
What is Saturday Night Palsy?
• injury of the upper arm, usually by sleeping with arm over the back of a chair
• decreased or absent sensation on the radial and dorsal side of hand and wrist and
• inability to extend wrist, thumb, and finger joints
• when the hand is pronated, the wrist and hand will drop