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41 Cards in this Set

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Sustentaculum Tali
On medial surface of calcaneus. Supports posterior part of talus.
What muscle forms a groove on the bottom of the calcaneus?
Flexor hallicus longus
Greater Saphenous Vein
Formed medially from dorsal venus arch of the foot. Passes anterior to medial malleolus, up medial side of leg, palms breadth from patella. Empties into sapehnous opening in femoral vein.
Accompanied by Saphenous branch of femoral nerve
Lesser Saphenous Vein
Formed laterally from dorsal venous arch of the foot. Passes posterior to lateral malleolus. Pierces fascia at popliteal fossa and enters popliteal vein.
Accompanied by sural and medial sural nerves.
Saphenous Nerve
Branch of femoral nerve which travels in subsartorial canal. Supplies medial side of leg to foot. Gives off omfrapatellar branch which supplies medial knee.
Sural Nerve
Formed from medial (from tibial) and lateral (from common fibial) sural nerves after they supply the upper calf. Descends with saphenous vein and supplies posterior and lateral leg and foot.
Superficial Fibular Nerve
Supplies Fibularis longus and brevis. Then supplies skin over dorsum of foot except area between 1st and 2nd toe.
Actions and insertions of muscles in Superficial posterior leg
All planterflexors of ankle joint and all insert on the calcaneal tubercle.
Innervation of muscles in posterior compartment of leg
Tibial Nerve
Gastrocnemius muscle
Origin: Lateral head - lateral aspect of laterla femoral condyle
Medial head - Popliteal surface of femur, superior to medial condyle
Inserts: Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon (achilies).
Action: 1) Flexor of leg at knee. 2) Plantar flexor of foot at ankle
Innervation: Tibial Nerve
Soleus Muscle
Origin: Head and upper part of fibula and soleal line of tibia.
Inserts: Through calcaneal tendon (achilies) to back of calcaneus
Action: 1) Assist in plantar flexion. Does not cross knee joint.
Innervation: Tibial Nerve
Plantaris Muscle
Origin: On lateral condyle of femur next to gastrocnemius muscle.
Inserts: On medial side of calcaneus, adjacent to achilies tendon.
Action: Weekly plantor flexes ankle and flexes knee.
Innervation: Tibial Nerve
Popliteus Muscle
Origin: Inside capsule of knee joint, from lateral side of lateral condyle of femur deep to llateral collateral ligament.
Inserts: On back of tibia above soleal line.
Action: 1) Medially rotates leg if foot not fixed. Laterally rotates femur if fixed. 2) Unlocks knee joint
Innervation: Tibial nerve
Tibialis Posterior Muscle
Origin: Interosseus membrane and adjacent bones
Inserts: sustentaculum tali, tubercle of navicular bone, 3 cuneform bones, cuboid bone, and 2-4 metatarsals.
Action: 1) Inverts foot. 2) Adducts foot. 3) Plantar flexes foot.
Innervation: Tibial Nerve
Flexor Digitorum Longus Muscle
Origin: Medial part of posterior tibia, inferior part of interosseus membrane.
Inserts: Distal Phalanx of lateral 4 toes.
Action: Flexes lateral 4 digits and plantarflexes ankle
Innervation: Tibial nerve
Flexor Hallucis longus muscle
Origin: Fibula and posterior intermuscular septum.
Inserts: Grooves inferior surface of sustentaculum tali. Inserts on distal phalanx of great toe.
Action: 1) flexes hallux 2) weakly plantarflexes ankle
Innervation: Tibial Nerve
Flexor retinaculum
Attached to medial malleolus anteriorly and to cancaneus posteriorly.
4 Sinovial compartments of flexor retinaculum
Tom Dick And Nervous Hary
1) Tendon of Tibialis Posterior
2) Tendond of flexor digitorum longus
3) Neurovascular bundle:
Posterior tibial artery
Tibial Nerve
4) Tendon of flexor hallucis longus
Fibularis Longus Muscle
Origin: Head and lateral superior part of fibula.
Inserts: Descends superficial, then posterior to fibularis brevis and lateral malleolus, turns under cuboid bone, passes under foot and inserts on medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bone.
Action: 1) Everts foot
2) Abducts foot
Innervation: Superficial Fibular nerve
Fibularis Brevis muscle
Origin: Lower portion of fibula.
Inserts: Passes posterior to lateral malleolus and inserts on base of fifth metatarsal.
Action: 1) everts foot 2) abducts foot
Innervation: Superficial Fibular Nerve
Superior fibular retinnaculum
Attaches to lateral malleolus and calcaneus. Holds both fibularis muscle tendons in place in common sinovial sheath.
Inferior Fibular Retinaculum
Attaches to calcaneus near inferior extensor retinaculum, crosses tendons and attaches to lateral surface of calcaneus. In seperate synovial sheaths.
Arterial and Nerve supply of anterior Compartment of leg.
Deep fibular Nerve and Anterior tibial artery.
Tibialis Anterior Muscle
Origin: Tibia and interosseus membrane
Inserts: Medial/Inferior surface of medial cuneform and base of first metatarsal.
Action: 1) Dorsiflex foot 2) Invert foot 3) Adduct foot
Innervation: Deep fibular nerve
SHIN SPLINTS
Extensor Hallucis Longus
Origin: Middle third of leg from interosseus membrane and fibula.
Inserts: Distal phalanx of great toe.
Action: Extends distal phalanx of great toe and dorsiflexes ankle.
Innervation: Deep Fibular Nerve
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Origin: Lateral condyle of tibia, fibula, anterior intermuscular septum and interossues membrane.
Inserts: Middle and Distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits (extensor expansion).
Action: Extends lateral 4 digits and dorsafelxes ankle
Innervation: Deep fibular Nerve
Fibularis Tertius Muscle
Origin: Inferior third and anterior surface of the fibula and interosseus membrane.
Inserts: Looks like part of extensor digitorum longus but has a seperate tendon which inserts on Dorsum of base of 5th metatarsal.
Acion: Dorsiflexes ankle and aids in foot eversion.
Innervation: Deep Fibular Nerve
Superior Extensor Retinaculum
Thickening of deep fascia between tibia and fibula above the malleoli.
Inferior Extensor retinacculum
Y shaped. Stem of Y is attaches to upper surface of calcaneus, passes medially over tendons, then divides. One limb over medial malleolus. One limb to deep fascia on medial side of foot to plantar surface.
3 Short synovial sheaths protect the tendons of extensors (not tertius) as they pass under.
Extensor Digitorum Brevis
Origin: Superior/Lateral surface of calcaneus.
Inserts: Middle phalanges of lateral 4 digits via longus tendon.
Action: Extend PIP joints of lat. 4 digits.
Innervation: Deep Fibular Nerve
Extensor Hallucis Brevis
Origin: Superior/Larteral aspect of calcaneus
Inserts: Base of proximal phalanx of hallus.
Action: Extend MTP joint of hallus.
Innervation: Deep Fibular Nerve
Crural Fascia
Deep Fascia of the leg
Triceps Surae Muscle
Formed by 2 heads of gastrocnemius and soleus muscle. Fuse togeather to form achilies tendon.
What innervates posterior compartment of leg?
Tibial nerve. Supplies superficial and deep, but only runs in deep.
Oblique Popliteal Tendon
Extra capsular ligament which strengthens Posterior aspect of knee joint. Contains tendonous fibers from semimembranous muscle.
Action of tibialis Muscles
Inverters of foot
Path of popliteal artery
Continuation of femoral. Splits into anterior and posterior tibial artery.
Anterior Tibial Artery
Branch of popliteal. Passes through interosseus membrane to supply anterior of leg. Once crosses ankle joint, becomes dorsal artery of foot (dorsalis pedis). Forms arcuate artery which sends perforating branches between metatarsal heads; first one called Deep plantar artery. Arcuate will anastomose with deep plantar arterial arch.
Posterior Tibial Artery
Supplies posterior compartment of the leg. Gives off fibular artery which mainly supplies lateral leg via perforating branches. Posterior tibial will split into medial and lateral plantar arteries. Lateral plantar forms deep plantar arterial arch.
Action of dorsiflexors in gait
Prevent footslap at heelstrike
Lift foot to clear ground during swing phase.
Actions of plantarflexors in gait
Muscles begin to contract at stance phase and continue until just before toe-off.