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70 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
collections of specialized cells and cell products that perform a relatively limited number of functions
What are the 4 major types of tissues
Epithelial tissue
Connective tissue
Muscle tissue
Nervous tissue
Basic functions of epithelial tissue
-cover exposed surfaces
-line internal passageways and chambers
-produce glandular secretions
Basic functions of connective tissue
-fill internal spaces
-provide structural support
-store energy
Basic function of muscle tissue
contracts to produce active movement
Basic functions of neural tissue
-conducts electrical impulses
-carries information
sheet of cells that covers an exposed surface or lines and internal cavity or passageway
Characteristics of epithelial tissue
-Covers all body surfaces
-All have basement membranes
-Get nutrition by diffusion
-Reproduce readily
-Protective barriers because of dense packing
-Secretion, absorption, excretion, sensory reception
-Composed almost entirely of cells
Functions of epithelial tissue
1. provide physical protection
-protect exposed and internal surfaces from abrasion, dehydration, and destruction by chemical or biological agents
2. Control permeability
-any substance that enters or leaves the body has to cross an epithelium
-epithelial barrier can be regulated and modified in response to various stimuli
3. Provide sensation
-most epithelia are extensively innervated by sensory nerves
-specialized epithelia can detect changes and convey such info to the nervous system
4. Produce specialized secretions
Gland cells
epithelial cells that produce secretions

--> are scattered among other cell types in epithelium
Types of epithelial tissue
-Simple squamous
-Simple cuboidal
-Simple columnar
-Stratified columnar
-Pseduostratified columnar
-Stratified squamous
-Transitional epithelium
-Stratified cuboidal
-Most epithelial cells have microvilli on their exposed apical surfaces
-Microvilli are especially abundant on epithelial cells where absorption and secretion occur, such as along portions of digestive and urinary tracts.
What is the function of cilia?
substances are moved over the epithelial surface by the synchronized beating of cilia
Germinative cells
stem cells, usually found close to the basal lamina
--> only way the epithelium can maintain its integrity over time is through the continual division of stem cells
How are epithelium classified?
according to the number of cell layers and the shape of the cells at the exposed surface
Simple epithelium
only a single layer of cells covering the basal lamina
-line internal compartments and passageways, including ventral body cavities
-characteristic of regions where secretion, absorption, or filtration occurs
Stratified epithelium
two or more layers of cells above the basal lamina
-found in areas subject to mechanical or chemical stress
-multiple cell layers make it thicker and sturdier
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
-contains several layers of nuclei, but cells are all in contact with underlying basement membrane
-portions of the respiratory tract
Transitional epithelium
-stratified epithelium with special characteristics that allow it to distend
-line renal pelvis, ureters, and urinary bladder
What does transitional epithelium look like when stretched?
When stretched, transitional epithelium resemble a stratified non-keratinized epithelium with two or more layers
What does transitional epithelium look like when relaxed?
When relaxed, transitional epithelium seems to have many layers, and the outermost cells are typically rounded cuboidal
What does transitional epithelium allow?
The design of transitional epithelium allows for considerable distention of the eptihelium without damage to the component cells
Squamous epithelium
-cells are thin, flat, and somewhat irregular in shape
-in a sectional view, the nucleus occupies the thickest portion of each cell
Simple squamous epithelium
-Most delicate
-found in protected regions where absorption takes place or where a slick, slippery surface reduces friction
the simple squamous epithelium that lines the ventral body cavities
-the pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium each contain a superficial layer of mesothelium
the simple squamous epithelium lining the heart and all blood vessels
Stratified squamous epithelium
-found where mechanical stresses are severe
-on exposed body surfaces, where mechanical stress and dehydration are potential problems, the apical layers of cells are packed with filaments of the protein keratin
Simple cuboidal epithelium
provide limited protection and occur in regions where secretion or absorption take place
Stratified cuboidal epithelium
relatively rare, found along the ducts of sweat glands and in the larger ducts of some other exocrine glands
Simple columnar
-provides some protection, found in areas where absorption or secretion occur
-Lines stomach, intestinal tract, uterine tubes, many excretory ducts
Stratified columnar epithelium
relatively rare, providing protection along portions of the pharynx, urethra, anus, and along a few excretory ducts
Functions of connective tissue
1. Establishing a structural framework for the body
2. Transporting fluids and dissolved minerals from one region of the body to another
3. Providing protetction for delicate organs
4. Supporting, surrounding, and interconnecting other tissue types
5. Storing energy reserves, especially in the form of lipids
6. Defending the body from invasion by microorganisms
All connective tissue has 3 anatomical components:
1. Specialized cells
2. Extracellular fibers
3. Ground substance
What constitutes the matix in connective tissue?
The extraceullular fibers and ground substance constitute the matrix that surrounds the cells

--> connective tissue consists mostly of extracellular matrix
Resident cells
stationary cells in connective tissue that are involved primarily with local maintenance, repairs, and energy storage
-fibroblasts, macrophages, adipose cells
Wandering cells
Cells of connective tissue concerned primarily with the defense and repair of damaged tissues
-white blood cells, mast cells
What are specialized cells in connective tissues?
Resident cells and wandering cells
Extracellular fibers of connective tissue
Collagenous, Elastic, and Reticular
What produces extracellular fibers in connective tissue
Fibroblasts produce fibers through the synthesis and secretion of protein subunits that combine or aggregate within the matrix
Ground substance
-surrounds the cellular and fibrous components of connective tissue
-in addition to hyaluronan, the ground substance contains a mixture of various proteoglycans and glycoproteins that interact to determine its consistency
Functional characteristics of connective tissue
-most abundant type of tissue by weight
-binds structures together (cartilage, ligaments)
-provides support (bones)
-stores fats, fills spaces
-produces blood cells
-protects against infections (WBC's)
-cells able to reproduce (except cartilage)
Areolar tissue
Loose connective tissue
-least specialized connective tissue
-ground substance accounts for most of volume
-binds skin to underlying organs, fills spaces
-mostly fibroblasts
Adipose tissue
loose connective tissue
-most of tissue volume is adipocytes
-provides padding, cushions shock, acts as an insulator to slow heat loss through the skin
Reticular tissue
-loose connective tissue consisting of reticular fibers, macrophages, fibroblasts, and fibrocytes
-forms the stroma of liver, spleeo, lymph nodes, and bone marrow
Dense connective tissues
-most of volume is occupied by fibers
-often called collagenous tissue because collagen fibers are the dominant tissue type
-poor blood supply
-dense, closely packed fibers, few cells
Dense regular connective tissue
-collagen fibers are packed tightly and aligned paralled to applied forces
-tendons, aponeuroses, elastic tissue, ligaments
Dense irregular connective tissue
-fibers form an interwoven meshwork and show no consistent pattern
-provides strength and support to areas subjected to stresses from many directions
-except at joints, dense irregular forms a sheath around cartilage and bone, also forms the thick fibrous capsule that surrounds internal organs and encloses the cavities or joints
Red blood cells
-accounts for almost half the volume of the blood
-responsible for the transport of oxygen, and to a lesser degree, or carbon dioxide to in the blood
White blood cells
-important components of immune system
-small membrane enclosed packets of cytoplasm that contain enzymes and special protein
-function in the clotting response
-cartilage cells
-only cells found within cartilage matrix
-live in lacunae
layer that surrounds a cartilage, consisting of a outer fibrous and an inner cellular region
Outer fibrous layer of perichondrium
-dense irregular connective tissue
-provides mechnical support and protection
-attaches the cartilage to other structures
Inner cellular layer of perichondrium
important to growth and maintenance of cartilage
-very rigid, supports and protects, forms models for developing bones
-collagen fibers embedded in gel-like ground substance
-chondrocytes occupy lucunae
-enclosed in perichondrium
Hyaline cartilage
-most common type
-matrix contains closely packed collagen fibers
-weakest type of cartilage
Elastic cartilage
-contains numerous elastic fibers that make it extremely resilient and flexible
-little ground substance
-fibrocartilaginous pads lie in areas of high stress
-resists compression, absorbs shock, and prevents damaging bone-to-bone contact
-fibers more regularly arranged than those of hyaline or elastic
osseous tissue
-lots of collagen, minerals
-structural support
-forms blood cells
-stores inorganic salts
-osteocytes and canniliculi
-good blood supply
supporting scaffold inside an organ that supports the cells
Characteristics of muscle tissue
-cells are contractile
-causes body parts to move
-3 types: skeletal, smooth, cardiac
cytoplasm of muscle cell
plasmalemma of muscle cell
Muscle tissue
specialized for contractions that shorten the cell along its longitudinal axis
Skeletal muscle
-each cell is multinucleate
-nervous system provides voluntary control over activities
-incapable of dividing, but new muscle fibers can be produced through division of myosatellite cells
-->as a result, skeletal muscle can at least partially repair itself
Cardiac muscle
-cell is smaller than a skeletal muscle fiber
-single-nucleated cells
-intercalated discs
-prominant striations
-incapable of dividing and lacks satellite cells
Smooth muscle
-cell with tapering ends
-single, centrally located nucelus
-move food, constrict blood veseels, empty bladder
Nervous tissue
-specialized for the conduction of electrical impulses from one region of the body to another
-found in brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
-sensitive to surroundings, transmit impulses
-incapable of dividing, very limited ability to repair
nerve cell
-transmits electrical impulses along plamalemmae
-vary in shape and size, can be very large
supporting cells
-varied functions, such as providing a supporting framework for neural tissue, regulating the composition of interstitial fluid, providing nutrients to neurons