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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the mouth, pharynx & esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, and the rectum & anus are ____ digestive organs
primary
the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are _____ digestive organs
accessory
what is the inner layer of the GI tract?
mucosa
what is the outer layer of the GI tract?
serosa
the _____ _____ of the mucosa cause the folds
muscularis mucosae
the ____ ____ of the mucosa contains lymphatic tissue and MALT
lamina propria
the ______ layer of the GI tract contain BV, glands, and lymphatic tissue
submucosa
the _____ is where the roots are anchored into the bones on the teeth
cementum
parotid, submandibular, and sublingual are three major ______ _____
salivary glands
______ helps to destroy bacteria
lysozyme
______ begins starch digestion
amylase
_____ pushes food down
peristalsis
the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus are parts of the what?
stomach
contents of the stomach leave through the what?
pyloric sphincter
what converts pepsinogen into pepsin?
HCL
____ ____ is secreted by salivary glands, and breaks down triglycerids
lingual lipase
____ ____ splits tryglycerids found in milkfat into smaller subunits
gastric lipase
the cephalic phase of the stomach is the " ____ _____ _____"
stomach getting ready
the gastric phase in the stomach is the "_____ _____"
stomach working
the intestinal phase of the stomach is the "_____ _____"
stomach emptying
the _____ secretes trypsin (protein digestion) and nuclease (digests nucleic acids)
pancreas
the ____ secretes bile
liver
the _____ stores bile
gall bladder
activation of vitamin D, excretion of bilirubin, and synthesis of bile salts are functions of the what?
liver
what does stercobilin do?
makes the feces brown
the common bile duct and pancreatic duct empties into the what?
duodenum
what is the primary site of absorbtion?
small intestines
the duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum of the small instestines ends with the _____ ______
ileocecal sphincter
enteroendocrine an intestinal gland secretes _____ which stimulates the ____
secretin, pancreas
paneth cells of the intestinal glands sectrete _____
lysozyme
______ is the local mixing of chyme with intestinal juices, sloshing back and forth,, which is _____ digestion
segmentation, mechanical
sucrase breaks down _____
frucose (sugars)
lactase breaks down ______
galactose
pacreatic lipase are enzymes that break down _____
lipids
pancreatic juices contain 2 ______
nucleases
___ ____ play a role in emulsification the breakdown of lipids
bile salts
micelles carry _____
lipids
fat-soluble vitamins travel in _____
micelles
water-soluble vitamins are absorbed by what?
diffusion
_____ ____ fill the mucosa of the large intestines
intestinal glands
what are the taeniae coli of the muscularus on the colon/large intestine
longitudinal muscle fibers
the haustra are the _____ on the colon
pouches
in chemical digestion in the large intestines no enzymes are secreted only _____
mucous
vitamin K and B are absorbed where?
in the colon
what does the gastrocolic relfex do?
moves feces into rectum
the ileocecal sphincter is located in the where?
large intestine
is catabolism exergonic or endergonic?
exergonic
is anabolism exergonic or endergonic?
endergonic
over half of the energy released from ATP is converted to _____
heat
oxidation is a _____ in energy content
decrease
oxidation is a ___ of hydrogen atoms
loss
(energy transfer)
reduction is the _____ in energy content
increase
(energy transfer)
reduction is the ______ of hydrogen atoms
addition
what is phosphorylation?
the addition of phosphorus to ADP to make ATP
______ is hundreds of glucose molecules combined to form glycogen for storage
glycogenesis
carbohydrate metabolism takes place in the ____
liver
glucose-6-phosphate hides _____ in cells
glucose
is glycolysis anaerobic or aerobic
anaerobic
what is the first step in glycolisis?
breakdown of glucose
the 10 step process of glycolysis occurs where?
in the cytosol
what are the products of glycolysis?
2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvic acids
if there is a O2 shortage in a cell pyruvic acid is reduced to _____ ____
lactic acid
if oxygen is present in the cell pyruvic acid is then converted into _____ ______
acetyl coenzyme A
what are the products of the formation of acetyl coenzyme A?
2 CO2, 2 NADH + 2H, 2 acetyl coenzyme A molecules
is the krebs cycle anaerobic or aerobic?
aerobic
the _____ ____ is a series of oxidation-reduction & decarboxylation reactions occurring in the ________
krebs cycle, mitochondria
the krebs cycle transports __ to the electron transport chain
H
what are the products of the krebs cycle?
2 ATP, 4 CO2, 6 NADH + 6H, 2 FADH2
glycogenisis stores what?
glycogen
what is glycogenolysis?
when you need glucose it breaks stuff down to get it
when is glucagon activated?
in the absence of glucose
glucagon and _______ is used in glycogenolysis
epinepherine
what is gluconeogenesis?
production of new glucose
gluconeogenesis is stimulated by _____ and ______
cortisol and glucagon
the chylomicrons carry ____ lipids
dietary
VLDLs transport _______
triglycerids
LDLs carry the "___ cholesterol" from the ____ to the ____
bad, liver, cells
HDLs carry "___ cholesterol" from the ___ to the ____
good, cells, liver
do triglycerids exert osmotic pressure?
no
triglycerides are split into fatty acids & glycerol by ____
lipase
if ATP levels are low, glycerol is converted into ____ ____
pyruvic acid
if ATP levels are high, glycerol is converted into _____
glucose
where are proteins used?
everywhere
glucose 6-phosphate,pyruvic acid, and acetyl coenzyme A play pivotal roles in ______
metabolism
(metabolic adaptations)
in the absorptive state nutrients enter the ______ and make _____ readily available for ATP production
bloodstream, glucose
in the postabsorptive state absorption of nutrients is _____
complete
the _____ functions to regulate osmolarity, blood volume, and blood pressure
kidney
what is the hilus of the kidney?
the renal artery and vein, ureter
the _____ is the functional units of the kidney
nephron
the renal ______ is the site of plasma filtration
corpuscle
in the renal corpuscles are the _______ capallaries where filtration of blood occurs
glomerulus
what do the collecting ducts and papillary ducts do?
drain urine
(blood supply to the nephron)
peritubular capallaries carry away _______ substances from the _____
reabsorbed, filtrate
(blood supply to the nephron)
the vasa recta supplies ______
nutrients
do the number of nephrons remain constant from birth? and if they are injured is there replacement?
yes,no
the amount of filtrate formed in all corpuscles of both kidneys / minute is called the _____ _____ ___
glomerular filtration rate
the amount of filtrate formed in all corpuscles of both kidneys / minute is called the _____ _____ ___
glomerular filtration rate
homeostasis requires GFR that is _____
constant
renal ________ are the mechanisms that maintain a constant GFR despite changes in arterial BP
autoregulation
at rest renal ________ prevails
autoregulation
most tubular reabsorbtion occurs in the ___
pct - proximal convoluted tubule
an important function of the nephron is tubular ______
secretion
water is only reabsorbed by _____
osmosis
______ water reabsorption occurs in the collecting duct under the control of antidiuretic hormones
facultative
_______ _____ produced by symporters & antiporters causes ____ reabsorption of other solutes
electrochemical gradients, passive
the descending limb of the loop of henle is very ______ to water
permeable
the ascending limb of the loop of henle is _______ to water
impermeable
bile consists of ____, ______, ___ ____, and __ ______, which is broken down into bilibrubin
water, cholesterol, bile salts, and bile pigments