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162 Cards in this Set

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Red blood cell production is regulated by
the amount of oxygen in blood flowing through kidney.
if the kidney recieves an inadequate supply of oxygen during red blood cell production then...
the kidney enhances its secretion of the hormone "erythropoietin".
erythropoietin:
hormone secreted by kidney in response to low oxygen level in kidney.
erythropoietin is transported to
bone marrow and stimulates the formation of red blood cells.
erythropoietin stimulates the formation of
red blood cells
if they kidney recieves an abundance of oxygen then
erythropoietin secretion decreases
people with kidney diseases have reduced...
erythropoietin and anemia.
what are ppl with kidney diseases given now?
genetically engineered erythropoietin (epogen)
anemia is
when the oxygen0carrying capacity of the blood is below normal.
anemia may be due to (oxygen carrying capacity of blood below normal):
a low red blood cell count, a low hemoglobin content or a genetic defect in the hemoglobin molecule.
hemorrhagic anemia is due to
a significant loss of blood.
hemolytic anemias are due to
lysed red blood cells.
the lysed red blood cells of hemolytic anemias may be due to
infections, defects in hemoglobin or cell membranes or transfusion reactions.
aplastic anemia is due to
destruction of bone marrow by cancer cells, xrays or chemicals such as benzene, formaldehyde, arsenic and heavy metals.
Hypochromic, or iron deficiency anemia is due to
a lack of iron in the diet or significant blood loss.
in hypochromic or iron deficiency anemia, the red blood cells are
small and pale and termed microcytes
pernicious anemia is due to
an absence of a stomach mucous protein (intrinsic factor) or a deficiency of vitamin b12 (extrinsic factor)
the intrinsic factor is required for the
absorption of vitamin b12 in the gut
in pernicious anemia, the red blood cells are called
macrocytes
in pernicious anemia, the red blood cells are called macrocytes because
during erythropiesis, the cells grow but do not divide.
what is an effective treatment for pernicious anemia
b-12 injections (im)
What are two diseases caused by genetic defects in the hemoglobin molecule?
thalassemia and sickle cell anemia.
in thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, the red blood cells are
fragile and lyse easily
sickle cell anemia is due to
a single base substitution in DNA
single base substitution in dna causes:
valine to susbstitute for glutamic acid in the beta polypeptide chain of hemoglboin (has incorrect amino acid).
HbA is ..... and HbS is .....
hba=normal hemoglobin
hbs= sickle cell hemoglobin
at low oxgyen tension, hbs...
comes out of solution in the red blood cells and cross-links iwth other HBS's to form a paracrystalline gel.
When HBS's form a paracrystalline gel, this does what
changes the shape of the cell to a sickle shape.
the sickle form is what compared to the normal
longer and not pliable
the sickle form (longer and not pliable) does what to cause problems:
plugs up small blood vessels, causing ischemia and intense pain. The red blood cells lyse and cause anemia.
The genotype AS makes what
1/2 normal hemoglobin and 1/2 sickle hemoglobin.
The genotype AS is said to have the
sickle cell trait or is a sickle carrier.
The SS genotype makes only
sickle hemoglobin.
Individuals with the SS genotype have
the sickle cell disease.
Individuals with the AS genotype are resistant to
malaria
the fact that indiviuals with AS genotype are resistant to malaria has allowed what?
the S gene to be perpetuated where malaria exists.
What is the most recent treatment for sickle cell anemia?
to administer the drug "hydroxyurea"
the drug hydroxyurea does what?
stimulates red blood cells to make fetal hemoglobin and cells with it do not sickle.
Polycythemia is a
higher-than-normal red blood cell count
polycythemia vera is a
cancerous condition of bone marrow
polycythemia vera results in
extermely high concentrations of red blood cell (10million/cmm)
secondary polycythemia is present in
well trained atheletes, and in ppl who live at high altitudes.
another word for white blood cells.
leukocytes
white bloods are are
defensive cells that help protect the body from invasion by foreign agents
white blood cells have
nuclei and mitochondria
white blood cells move by
amoeboid locomotion
white blood cells can squeeze through
pores in capillaries
white blood cells can migrate through
intersticial spaces
the mechanism of white blood cells squeezing through capillaries and migrating through interstitial spaces:
diapedesis
granular leukocytes have
granules in their cytoplasm that stain with certain dyes.
3 types of granulocytes are:
neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
neutrophils have
granules taht stain light pink
the granules of neutrophils have
lobular shaped nuclei
granules of neutrophils are known as
polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's) or Polys.
the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmn's) (polys) represent about:
61% of white blood cells
polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmn's or polys) are highly
phagocytic.
in acute infections, the polymorphonuclear leukocytes are:
elevated.
Eosinophils have
red staining granules
eosinophils represent about
2% of white blood cells
the eosininphils do what?
detoxify foreign proteins and are elevated in parasitic worm infections
basophils have
bluish staining granules
basophils make up about
1% white blood cells
the basophils do waht?
secrete heparin and histamine
what are the agranular leukocytes?
leukocytes that do not have granules in their cytoplasm
Eosinophils have
red staining granules
eosinophils represent about
2% of white blood cells
Eosinophils have
red staining granules
Eosinophils have
red staining granules
Eosinophils have
red staining granules
eosinophils represent about
2% of white blood cells
what are two types of agranular leukocytes
lymphocytes and monocytes.
eosinophils represent about
2% of white blood cells
eosinophils represent about
2% of white blood cells
the eosininphils do what?
detoxify foreign proteins and are elevated in parasitic worm infections
Eosinophils have
red staining granules
Eosinophils have
red staining granules
the eosininphils do what?
detoxify foreign proteins and are elevated in parasitic worm infections
lymphocytes make up about
30% of white blood cells.
eosinophils represent about
2% of white blood cells
the eosininphils do what?
detoxify foreign proteins and are elevated in parasitic worm infections
the eosininphils do what?
detoxify foreign proteins and are elevated in parasitic worm infections
basophils have
bluish staining granules
eosinophils represent about
2% of white blood cells
basophils have
bluish staining granules
the eosininphils do what?
detoxify foreign proteins and are elevated in parasitic worm infections
What are two types of lymphocyte?
b-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes
basophils have
bluish staining granules
basophils have
bluish staining granules
basophils make up about
1% white blood cells
the eosininphils do what?
detoxify foreign proteins and are elevated in parasitic worm infections
basophils make up about
1% white blood cells
b-lymphocytes are responsible for?
make antibodies
basophils have
bluish staining granules
basophils make up about
1% white blood cells
the basophils do waht?
secrete heparin and histamine
basophils make up about
1% white blood cells
basophils have
bluish staining granules
T-lymphocytes are responsible for?
cell mediated immunity
basophils make up about
1% white blood cells
the basophils do waht?
secrete heparin and histamine
the basophils do waht?
secrete heparin and histamine
the basophils do waht?
secrete heparin and histamine
what are the agranular leukocytes?
leukocytes that do not have granules in their cytoplasm
basophils make up about
1% white blood cells
what are the agranular leukocytes?
leukocytes that do not have granules in their cytoplasm
the basophils do waht?
secrete heparin and histamine
what are the agranular leukocytes?
leukocytes that do not have granules in their cytoplasm
monocytes make up about
6% of white blood cells
what are the agranular leukocytes?
leukocytes that do not have granules in their cytoplasm
what are two types of agranular leukocytes
lymphocytes and monocytes.
the basophils do waht?
secrete heparin and histamine
what are the agranular leukocytes?
leukocytes that do not have granules in their cytoplasm
what are two types of agranular leukocytes
lymphocytes and monocytes.
When monocytes move into tissue, what happens?
they become macrophages.
what are two types of agranular leukocytes
lymphocytes and monocytes.
what are two types of agranular leukocytes
lymphocytes and monocytes.
lymphocytes make up about
30% of white blood cells.
what are the agranular leukocytes?
leukocytes that do not have granules in their cytoplasm
what are macrophages?
large cells that are highly phagocytic
what are two types of agranular leukocytes
lymphocytes and monocytes.
lymphocytes make up about
30% of white blood cells.
lymphocytes make up about
30% of white blood cells.
lymphocytes make up about
30% of white blood cells.
What are two types of lymphocyte?
b-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes
what are two types of agranular leukocytes
lymphocytes and monocytes.
lymphocytes make up about
30% of white blood cells.
What are two types of lymphocyte?
b-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes
What are two types of lymphocyte?
b-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes
b-lymphocytes are responsible for?
make antibodies
What are two types of lymphocyte?
b-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes
lymphocytes make up about
30% of white blood cells.
What are two types of lymphocyte?
b-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes
b-lymphocytes are responsible for?
make antibodies
b-lymphocytes are responsible for?
make antibodies
What are two types of lymphocyte?
b-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes
b-lymphocytes are responsible for?
make antibodies
T-lymphocytes are responsible for?
cell mediated immunity
T-lymphocytes are responsible for?
cell mediated immunity
b-lymphocytes are responsible for?
make antibodies
T-lymphocytes are responsible for?
cell mediated immunity
monocytes make up about
6% of white blood cells
T-lymphocytes are responsible for?
cell mediated immunity
b-lymphocytes are responsible for?
make antibodies
monocytes make up about
6% of white blood cells
T-lymphocytes are responsible for?
cell mediated immunity
When monocytes move into tissue, what happens?
they become macrophages.
monocytes make up about
6% of white blood cells
monocytes make up about
6% of white blood cells
T-lymphocytes are responsible for?
cell mediated immunity
When monocytes move into tissue, what happens?
they become macrophages.
monocytes make up about
6% of white blood cells
When monocytes move into tissue, what happens?
they become macrophages.
what are macrophages?
large cells that are highly phagocytic
When monocytes move into tissue, what happens?
they become macrophages.
monocytes make up about
6% of white blood cells
what are macrophages?
large cells that are highly phagocytic
what are macrophages?
large cells that are highly phagocytic
When monocytes move into tissue, what happens?
they become macrophages.
what are macrophages?
large cells that are highly phagocytic
When monocytes move into tissue, what happens?
they become macrophages.
what are macrophages?
large cells that are highly phagocytic
what are macrophages?
large cells that are highly phagocytic