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148 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anterior, Posterior, and Lateral borders of the thoracic cavities
Anterior- Sternum and costal cartilage

Posterior- Vertebral column and posterior portion of the ribs

Lateral- Ribs and intercostal content
Thoracic Inlet/Outlet
Inlet- 1st Thoracic vertebrae, manibrum of sternum, and 1st rib

Outlet- 12th thoracic vertebrae, lowest ribs, xyphoid process of sternum, costal cartilagees
Landmarks of Thoracic wall
Breast, Nipple (easy reference point for 4th interspace), jugular notch (top of manibrum), sternal angle (where 2nd rib attaches to sternum)
Sternum (landmarks)
Manibrium- top
Xyphoid Process- bottom
Ribs- true vs. false
True Ribs- 1 through 7....costal cartilage attaches to sternum

False Ribs- 8,9,10...costal cartilage articulate with cartilage of rib above
11, 12- floating rib- float free, no articulation, no costal cartilage
Typical Rib
Head-has two articular facets for vertebral bodies
Tubercle- has an articular facet for the transverse vertebrae
Costal Groove- at interior surface
1st rib exception
called superlative rib......flattest, broadest, shortest, most curves, head has one facet
2nd rib exception
intermediate size
10th rib exception
called the uncertain rib....may articulate with costal cartilage of rib above or may float free, short
11th rib exception
short, head has one facet, no neck or tubercle
12th rib exception
short, head has one facet, no neck or tubercle, no angle or costal groove
External Intercostal
O- Lower border of the rib
I- Upper border of rib below
A- elevates ribs during inspiration, increases anterior to posterior diameter
N- Intercostal nerves
Internal Intercostal Muscle
O- Inner surface of the rib
I- Upper border of the rib below
A- depresses ribs during expiration, decreases anterior to posterior diameter
n- intercostal nerves
Tranversus Thoracis Muscle
O- Internal Body and xyphoid process of sternum
I- Costal cartilage of ribs 2-6
A- works with the internal thoracic muscle to depress ribs
N- intercostal nerves
Posterior Intercostal Artery
top two come from highest intercostal artery

Rest branch from aorta
Anterior Intercostal Artery
branches from internal thoracic artery
Anterior Thoracic Vein
runs into internal thoracic vein
Posterior Thoracic Vein
runs into azygoos and hemiazygos vein
intercostal nerves
are the ventral primary rami of the thoracic spinal nerves
subcostal nerves
from the 12th thoracic spinal nerves
how are neurovascular bundles found in the thoracic walls?
On the inferior borders of ribs and arranged superior to inferior in a V-A-N pattern
visceral pluera
Invaginates the lung, seaps into fisures, and adheres to lungs
parietal pleura
4 of them
Cervical (dome)
An elastic tissue that is filled with air sacs, called alveoli, that function in gas exchange. Primary bronchus is seperated into brochus and brachioli
-The root of lung (hilus) contains the primary bronchus, the pulmonary arteries, and the pulmonary veins.
bronchial arteries and veins
Provide the lung tissue with blood, come off of aorta
lymph vessels of the lungs
drain excess tissue into the veins.
parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve innervations of the lung
Para- vagus nerve
Symp- sympathetic trunk
an imaginary plane seperating the thoracic runs from the sternal angle to the 4th or 5th thoracic vertebrae. divided into superior and inferior(antererior, middle, posterior)
what comes off of the aortic arch?
Brachiocelphalic---branches into r. carotid and r. subclavius

left carotid, left subclavius
brachiocephalic veins
-both branch from superior vena cava, branch into left/right jugular and subclavius
vagus nerves
parasympathetic to abdominal and thoracic viscera
phrenic nerves
innervate diaphragam, come from cervical nerves 3,4,5
thoracic duct
lymphatic channel draining into left subclavius vein
anterior mediastinum
looser aereolar tissue
middle mediastinum
heart, pericardium, phrenic nerves,
posterior mediastinum
thoracic duct, esophogus, descending aorta, vagus nerves, azygous and hemiazygous veins.
a hollow, muscluar organ that is shaped like a cone
connective tissue surrounding heart
-outer fibrous part
-inner serous part, aids in moveement during contraction and relaxation
4 chambers of heart
R,L Atrium
R,L, ventricles
Great vessels of the heart
Superior Vena Cava (RA),
Inferior Vena Cava(RA),
Aorta(LV), Pulmonary Arteries(RV), Pulmonary Veins(LA)
walls between chambers
Valves of the heart
Right Atrial Ventricular (tricuspid)
L. A-V value (bicuspid, mitral)
Aortic semilunar
Pulmonary semilunar
what muscles are found only in R. Atrium
Pectenate muscles
fossa ovalus
space that used to be the framinal valley in the infant in R Atrium
How do the walls of the L Ventrical look as compared to the R one
R= more muscluar to facilitate pumping
L= smooth
trabiculae carne
irregular surface of the walls of the ventricles
papillary muscles/chordate tendonae
pap- feetlike muscles of off the trebicular carne.......keep valves closed during contraction

chordate tendone, come off off paps.
explain the infant
02/C02 exchanged in the placenta, umbillical vein (rich in 02) comes through ductus venosa and inferior vena cava. ductus arteriosa bipass away from lungs

When they are born, the lungs start functioning, so placenta isn't needed any more. The umbillical artery closes up and the ductus arteriosa is overrun by smooth muscle. Blood is sent from lungs to left atrium, causing framinal valley to fold over.
Explain the conduction system
S-A valve or the pacemaker recieves impulses near the superior vena cava in the R Atrium, sends the to the A V node in the floor of the R Atrium. These impulses then go to the bundle of His in the muscular septa. The budle branches left and R and the charge is sent down the muscular septa to the Prkinje fibers. The charge jumps into the ventricular muscle at teh Purkinje fibers. Finally, the impulses innervate sympathetically at the cardiac sympathetic trunk (raising HR) and parasympathetically through the vagus nerves (slowing HR).
Left Coronary Artery
Comes off through the semilunar atrial valve
Anterior descending art- suplies the left and R ventricles
Circumflex- goes around and supplies the L. Atrium and L. Ventrical
R Coronary Artery
Comes from the cusps of the aortic semilunar valve

posterior descending- supplies L. and R. Ventricles

Marginal- supplies the R. VEntricle
VEins of the heart
Great VEin- runs with anterior descending

Middle VEin- runs with posterior descending

COrnonary Sinus- cardiac veins dump into it, which brings bloof from lungs to R. Atrium
VEntricular Septal Defect
Septal muscle fails to close completely
Tetrolagy of Fallot
VSD, hypertrophy of the R VEntricle, Overriding aorta, and pulmonary stenosis.
linea alba
line down the central portion of the abdomin
From superficial to deep, layers of the abdomin
Skin, Campers Facia, Scarpa's Fascia, Rectus abdomonis muscle, external oblique muscle, internal oblique muscle, transversus abdomonis muscle, transversalis fascia, preparitaneal fat, peritineum
2 elements of Camper's Fascia
panniculus adiposus-campers fascia
caput medusae- veins of abdomin
Scarpa's fascia
membranous layer
Rectus Abdominas Muscle
O- pelvic crest
I- Costal Cartilage of 5-7
A- flexes Vertebral Column
N- lower 5-6 intercostal, subcostal
External Oblique Muscle
O- Lower 8 Ribs
I- Illiac Crest, Linea Alba
A- Compresses Abdomen, flexes vertebral collumn on both sides, if one side flexes, the trunk rotates in the opposite direction
Internal Oblique Muscle
O- Lateral 1/3 of the Inguinal Ligament, Lumbar Fascia, Illiac Crest
I- Lower 4 Costal Cartilage, linea alba
A- Compresses abdomen, flexes vertebral collumn, if one side flexes, the trunk rotates in the same direction
N- Lower 5 intercostals,illeoinguinal, illeohypogastric
Transversus abdominalis
O- Lower 6 costal cartilage, lateral 1/3 of the inguinal ligament, illiac crest
I- linea alba
A- compresses abdomen
N- lower 5 interocostal, illeoinguinal, illeohypogastric
inguinal Ligament
The tendonous part of the external obligue muscle, goes from ASIS to pubic symphesis
Transvercalis Fascia
Deep to Transversalis Abdominis muscle
Transvercalis Fascia
Deep to Transversalis Abdominis muscle
Deepest layer of abdominal cavity lining
Inguinal Ring/Cavity
The cavity seperates the external and internal rings.......through this runs the spermatic cord in males and the round ligament of the uterus in females
Inferior epigastric artery
forms part of hesselbach's triangle, runs down external oblique muscle and crosses the inguinal ligament
Hesselbach's Triangle
Rectus abdominus muscle, inguinal ligament, inferior epigastric muscle
-sight f direct or acquired hernias
above arcuate line
Rectus sheath from external obl. goes anterior, interal oblique, splits, and transversus abd. runs posterior. They meet in the middle of rectus abdominus muscles to form the linea alba
below arcuate line
All 3 muscles run anterior, there is no posterior border
Direct of acquired hernias
Occur when intra abdominal pressure causes internal abdominal organs to push through transversus fascia in the hesselbach's triangle.....can occur in either male or females at any time.
Steps of descent of testes and what it picks up at each layer
Teste develops between peritineal layer and transversalis fascia
Peritineal layer- processes vaginalis
Preperitineal Fat- fat
Transvercallis Fascia- internal spermatic fascia
Trans. Abd.- nothing
Intern. Obl- Cremaster Muscle
External Obl- external spermatic fascia
Scarpa's Fascia- Colle's Fascia
Camper's Fascia- Dartos Muscle (not fatty, smooth muscle)
Skin- Skin
Fate of processes vaginalis
top part (funicular part) obliterates

bottom part- vaginal part, becomes the tunica vaginalis
fate of the gubernaculum
In males, it becomes the euromuscular cord from teste to scrotum

In femals, part becomes the prper ligament from ovary to uterus (preventing uterus from descending too far into labia majus) and the other part becomes the round ligament (goes through inguinal canal) from the uterus to the labia majus.
indirerct or acquired hernias
occur when the funicular part of the processes vaginalis fails to obliterate, causing herniation of the interabdominal organs. This occurs MAINLY in males, and can show any time in life.
membranous covering of abdminal cavity, only opened by the fallopian tube in women. There is a serous liquid inside it.
Intra- able to move inside abdominal cavity
Retro- no movement permitted (pancreas, duodenem, ascending colon, descending colon, rectum, )
two folds of pericardium
greater ommentum
"policeman of abdomen"
Four folds of mesentary that drape over the abdomen, coming from greater curvature of stomach and the transverse colon. Able to block off inflammation
lesser ommentum
two folds of pericardium, go between liver and lesser curvature of stomach, hepatoduodenal ligament to the right of it.
Accompanied with vague nerves, it pierces diapragham and empties into the stomach. (cardia portion)
Artery: left gastric artery
Esophogus empties into it, consists of a bdy, a pylorus prtion, a fundus portion and a cardia portion. Has rugae (folds of muscle on it's inside). Arteries are: left, right gastric, left right gastroepiploic
proximal portion of the small intestine, consists of a superior, descending, inferior, ascending portion. At descending, common bile duct and pancreatic ducts enter and midgut portion begins.
Arteries: right gastric, right epiploic, hepatic, gastroduodenal, inferior and superior pancreaticduodenal
foregut includes:
stomach, proximal duodenem, esophogus, liver, spleen, gallbladder, pancreus
Largest gland in the body, endocrine and exocrine function. Four lobes: right, left, caudate, and quadrate.
Hepatic artery brings it blood from the aorta, hepatic vein moves blood to the inferior vena cava, portal vein brings blood from renal through digestive to kidney. Ligamentum teres (Inside falciform ligament which divides r and l lobes) is the old umbilical vein. COronary ligament runs up top, at ends is right and left triangular lobes. Ligamentum venosa divides caudate and L lobe, is the old ductus venosa.
Stores, concentrates, and releases bile. Hepatic duct goes from liver to gallbladder in cystic duct (place of stones, causing upper R pain). then bile is sent into common bile duct to descending duodenum.

Cystic Artery
sleeps in the arm of the duodenum, has a head, a body, and a tail. Functions in endocrine and exocrine. the pancreaticduodenals and its branches make up the splenic.
not really a foregut, but is b/c it is fed by the celiac trunk and is intraperitineal. Fed by the spelinic artery. Large lymphoid organ
midgut contents:
distal portion of the duodenum, jejunum, illium, cecum, ascending colon, proximal portion of the transverse colon, appendix
how do you tell the difference between jejunum and illium
jejunum's mesentary has less blood vessels and less fat, the opposite is true for the illium
small intestine fed blood by:
intestinal branches
small intestine fed blood by:
intestinal branches
first portion of large intestine....impolite colon, forces contents up it, makes noise when it comes back down. fed by illiocolic
small lymphatic organ dangling from cecum, inflammation causes R lower quadrant pain, as does inflamation of lymphatic tissue in fallopian tubes and ureter.
Ascending Colon
Has large sacculations called houstra and fatty tags called appendicies eppiploics. fed by illiocholic and right cholic.
transverse colon
proximal portion and distal portion define borders of midgut and hindgut. proximal fed by middle cholic of superior mesenteric, distal portion fed by ascending artery of inferior messenteric.
descending colon
fed by L cholic artery of inferior mesenteric,
Sigmoid colon
usually in pelvic cavity, fed by sigmoidal artery.
in pelvis, fed by superior rectal artery
Anal Cavity
termination of digestive track. Interior portion is smooth muscle, exterior portion is skeletal muscle.
hidgut contents
distal portion of transverse clon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anal cavity

fed by inferior mesenteric.
retroperitineal organs in the posterior abdominal cavity, protected by quadratis lumborum muscles. Contain a hilum with a renal artery, vein, and ureter cord coming off of the pelvis
On superior border of kidneys, "napolean's hat"
What do Illiacs (external and internal) provide blood to?
Glutteals, vesicles (bladder), vaginal , pudendal(floor of pelvis), glutteals, and uterus.
firbomuscular covering that seperates the thoracic and abdominal cavities. It functions in respiration and is innervated by the vagus nerve. The vagus, the esophogus, the aorta, the thoracic duct, and the inferior vena cava go through it
quadratus lumborum
O- Illiac Crest
I- 12th rib and top 4 lumbar transvverse processes
A- protects kidney in posterior, lateral flexion of the vertebral collumn
N- Ventral Rami of L1-4
O- Illiac fossa
I- lesser trochanter of the femur
A- Hip flexion
N- femoral nerve
Psoiasis Major
O-Top 4 Lubar Transverse Vertebrae, the Vertebral discs of T12 and L1-4 and the adjacent vertebrae
I- the lesser trochanter
A- hip flexion
N- Ventral Rami of L 2-4
Psoasis Minor
(not always present)
O- bodies of T12 and C1
I- Illiopsoac fascia and pectineal line of the illium
A- flexor of the lumbar spine.
N- Ventral Ramus of C1
Innervates hypogastric region and the lateral abdominal region (serves as sensory)
Innervates lateral portion of abdoman, serving as the sensory, and the cutaneous portion of the base of the penis and scrotum in males and the labius majorum and mons pubis in females
lateral cutaneous femoral nerve
innervatest the skin of the lateral thigh
innervates the cremaster muscle and the skin of the proximal and anterior thigh
medial to psoas major, innervates the medial muscles of the thigh and a small cutaneous portion of the medial thigh
femoral nerve
runs down the anterior thigh into leg, innervating the muscles of the lateral thing and is sensory to the anteromedial thigh and leg.
lubrosacral nerve
runs into sacral plexus, eventually becoming part of the psiatic nerve
Pelvis and it's landmarks.
Pelvis consists of an illium, an ischium, and a pubis. THere is also a sacrum and a cocycx. The greater (false pelvis) consists of the sacral prominatory and the upper part of the pubic synthesis. The lower, true, pelvis is below this.
sacral prominatory
the most anterior part of the sacrum
urinary bladder
recieves the two ureters from the kidneys, and produces the urethra. Innervated by the vesicle from the internal illiac.
retro pubic space (space of retzius)
Posterior to pubis and anterior to bladder.
The final part of the digestive tract before the anal canal, runs anterior, then turns posterior. Innervated by the superior rectal nerve of the inferior mesenteric and the pudendal nerve of the interal illiac.
Recto-uterine pouch (space of douglas)
Space anterior to rectum and posterior to uterus in women...blood and water can collect here
retro prostatic space (space of proust)
space the is posterior to the prostate and anterior to the rectum in males
Vas Deferens
runs from epidiimous to the seminal vesicle.
seminal vesicle
produces a secretion that is combined with the spermatozoa in the ejaculatory duct. This duct is a commbonation of the seminal duct and the ductus deferns. and opens into the prostatic urethra.
produces a secretion that forms part of the seminal fluid. inferior to the bladder, it transmits the prostatic urethra. It tends to hypertrophy with age and can get cancerous tumors.
Two paired genital glands, about the size and shape of a large almond. They are held to the urethra by a proper ligament, they are connected to the broad ligament by a mesoovalus (two folds of peritineum) and are connected by suspensory ligament (which holds a neurovasular bundle) to the pelvic brim.
Pear shaped, smooth muscular organ that has a fundus, a body, and a lower cervix opening into the vagina. It is innervated by the uterine nerve of the internal illiac and is lined by the endometrium. The broad ligament connects it to the pelvic brim and the round ligament goes from the uterus through the inguinal canal to the labia majorus.
flattened, distensible, musculomembranous canal that is at the end of the cervix and opens in the labia minorus. It is innervated by the vaginal artery in the internal illiac.
A section at the inferior trunk of a person. It is bordered by four points: the cocycx, the pubic synthesis, and the inschial tuberocities. It is divided in males and females into two triangles: the anterior ureogenital triangle and the posterior anal triangle
a sack of skin and fascia that holds the testicles
hold and mature the sperm cells....recieve the seminiferous tubules and outlet to the ductus deferens
formed by three cylindrical bodieserectile tissues, highly vascular

Corpus spongiosum- urethra runs through it
Corpus Cavernosum (2)
Prepuce- foreskin surrounding glans penis
glans penus- enlarged ending of the corpus spongeosum...urethra transmits through it.
3 sections of the urethra
prostatic, spongeosum, membronous
bulbourethral glad
aka cowpers ureogenital diaphram......secretes a lubricant for urethra.
mons pubis
projection of skin anterior to the pubic synthesis that is caused by a proliferation of semicutaneous fat.
labia majorus/labiaminorus
majorus-more larger, lateral folds surrounding vestibular cleft

minorus- smaller, medial clefts surrounding vestibles.
analogous to the penis in males, has a body, a prepuce, and a glans.....not transmitted by the urethra.
vestibule/vestibular glands
vestibule- the opening where the vagina and the urethra transmit.

Vestibular glands- where the vagina and urethra actually come out.
three layers of perenium
bulbospongeosum- M: constricts and empties urethra
F: decreases opening of vestibule and the vagina

Illiocavernosum- constricts veins and limits venous backflow from erectile tissue to maintain erection

Superficial Transversllis perenea- tenses central tendon and perenium
deep transvercallis perenia- tenses perenium

sphictor urethrae- surrounds urethra, decreases the opening of the urethra. Voluntary relaxation of this muscle must occur for urination

Levator Ani: pubococogeaus
illiococcogeus-both elevate anal cavity to expel contents of rectum and both are innervated by sacral nerve four

Cocogeyus- innervated by sacral nerves four and five- works with leator ani muscles to support and elevate pelvic floor
superior glluteal
innervates the gluteal medius and minimus and the tensfascialata.
inferior gluteal
innervates the glutteus maximus
posterior lateral cutaneous
comes off of sacral plexus and innervates posterior skin of the femoral thigh
innervates 1st and second floors of the pelvis (peritineum) and the external genitalia.
tibial nerve
anterior portion of the sciatic nerve....runs into posterior leg and eventually splits into plantar nerves in foot.
common peroneal
brancches into superficial and deep peroneal, goes to lateral leg and innervateslateral part of leg.
is a duchbag