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149 Cards in this Set

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Number the following in structures in order from smallest to largest.
1. myofibril
2. fascicle
3. filaments
4. muscle fiber
5. muscle
3, 1, 4, 2, 5
Connective tissue covering surrounding fascicles.
Perimysium
Finger-like invaginations of the plasma membrane
T-tubules
Plasma membrane of skeletal muscle fibers
Sarcolemma
Connective tissue covering that surrounds the muscle
Epimysium
Stores calcium within the muscle fiber
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Connective tissue covering that surrounds individual muscle fibres
Endomysium
Smallest contractile unit
Sarcomere
Rod-like structures that are formed of thick and thin filaments
Myofibrils
Name the sarcomere structure defined:
Length does not change during contraction
A band
Name the sarcomere structure defined:
The length of the thick filaments
A band
Name the sarcomere structure defined:
Center point of attachment for the thick filaments
M line
Name the sarcomere structure defined:
Region that contains only thin filaments
I band
Name the sarcomere structure defined:
Region that contains only thick filaments
H zone
Name the sarcomere structure defined:
Region that contains overlapping thin and thick filaments
A band
Name the sarcomere structure defined:
Area from z disc to z disc
Sarcomere
Name the sarcomere structure defined:
This area disappears in a fully contracted muscle
H zone, also I band

(but that's not what prof sez in her dum answers. She just sez H.)
Found in synaptic end bulbs and contain neurotransmitters
Vesicles
Area of sarcolemma near synaptic end bulbs
Motor end plate
Space between end bulbs and sarcolemma
Synaptic cleft
Type of neurotransmitter released on motor end plate
ACh (Acetylcholine)
Ion that causes depolarization of the sarcolemma
Na+
Ion released from sarcoplasmic reticulum
Ca2+
Voluntary or involuntary:
Biceps
Voluntary
Voluntary or involuntary:
Tongue
Voluntary
Voluntary or involuntary:
Arrector pili
Involuntary
Voluntary or involuntary:
Small intestine
Involuntary
Voluntary or involuntary:
Eyeball movements
Both. Internal lens muscles are involuntary.
Voluntary or involuntary:
Diaphragm
Both. You can hold your breath, but at some point it becomes an involuntary response to breathe.
Why do fast glycolytic fibers develop more force than slow oxidative fibers?
They have a greater diameter, more myofibrils, and use creatine phosphate to generate ATP
Why are slow oxidative fibers fatigue-resistant?
More blood vessels to carry oxygen and glucose, myoglobin to carry oxygen, more mitochondria to make ATP
Why do slow fibers have more mitochondria and capillaries?
Aerobic respiration
Which type of fiber would be most contracted by heavy weight lifting
Fast fibers
Which type of fiber would be most contracted by medium distance jogging or swimming
Intermediate fibers
Which type of fiber would be most contracted by long distance jogging or walking?
Slow fibers
Name the term that matches the definition:
Time between muscle fiber stimulation and contraction
Latent period
Name the term that matches the definition:
Motor neuron and all the fibers it innervates
Motor unit
Name the term that matches the definition:
Period of force generation in a fiber
Contraction period
Name the term that matches the definition:
Period when crossbridges detach
Relaxation period
What bone does the acromion process articulate with?
Humerus
Which is anterior, clavicle or scapula?
Clavicle
What bone does the medial end of the clavicle articulate with?
Manubrium
What cavity articulates with the head of the humerus?
Glenoid
What bones make up the pectoral girdle?
Clavicle, scapula
What part of the radius articulates with the humerus?
radial head
What forms your elbows?
Olecranon
Is the ulna medial or lateral to the radius?
Medial
What are the bones that make up your fingers?
Phalanges
What bones make up the palm of your hand?
Metacarpals
What part of the humerus articulates with the radius?
Capitulum
What part of the humerus articulates with the ulna?
Trochlea
Where does the radius articulate with the ulna?
Radial notch
What are the medial and lateral wrist bones?
Styloid process of ulna + radius
When you put your hands on your hips, what are you touching?
Iliac crest (of ilium bones)
Name the bones that make up the pelvic girdle.
Ilium, ischium, pubic bones
What bones do you sit on?
Ischial tuberosities
Name the anterior joint between the pubic bones.
Pubic symphysis
What is the largest foramen in the body?
Obturator
Is the pelvic outlet larger in males or females?
Females
Is the fibula medial or lateral to the tibia?
Lateral
What does the proximal femur articulate with?
Acetabulum
What is the largest bone in the leg?
Tibia
What bone is your kneecap?
Patella
What is the thigh bone?
Femur
What bone is your heel?
Calcaneal
Name the bones in your toes.
Phalanges (Proximal, middle, and distal)
What bones make up your ankles?
Tarsals
What is the largest bone in the foot?
Talus
What are the bones that you can feel medially and laterally on your ankles?
Medial and lateral malleolus
How many phalanges are in your big toe?
2
Which muscles make up your rotator cuff?
Subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor
Origin, insertion of teres minor
Scapula; humerus
Origin, insertion of Teres major
Scapula; humerus
Origin, insertion of supraspinatus
Scapula; humerus
Origin, insertion of infraspinatus
Scapula; humerus
Origin, insertion of deltoid
clavicle and scapula; humerus
Origin, insertion of latissimus dorsi
Spine, sacrum and ilium, lower four ribs; humerus
Origin, insertion of pectoralis major
Clavicle, sternum, cartilages of second to sixth rids or first to seventh ribs
Origin, insertion of frontal belly of frontalis
Epicranial aponeurosis; skin superior to orbit
Origin, insertion of occipital belly of frontalis
Occipital and temporal bones; epicranial aponeurosis
Origin, insertion of orbicularis oris
Muscle fibers surrounding opening of mouth; skin at corner of mouth
Origin, insertion of Buccinator
Maxilla & mandible; skin at angle of mouth and orbicularis oris
Origin, insertion of platysma
Fascia over deltoid and pectoralis major muscles; Mandible, muscles around angle of mouth, and skin of lower face
Origin, insertion of Orbicularis oculi
Medial wall of orbit; circular path around orbit
Origin, insertion of rectus abdominus
pubis and pubic symphysis; cartilage of fifth to seventh ribs and xiphoid process of sternum
Muscle deep to internal obliques
Transverse abdominis
Origin, insertion of diaphragm
Xiphoid process, costal cartilages of inferior ribs, lunmbar vertebrae; central tendon (strong aponeurosis near center of diaphragm)
Origin, insertion of external intercostals
Rib above; rib below
Origin, insertion of internal intercostals
Rib below, rib above
Origin, insertion of trapezius
occipital bone and spines of c7-t12; clavicle and scapula
Origin, insertion of pectoralis minor
2nd through fifth, third through fifth, or second through fourth ribs; scapula
Origin, insertion of biceps brachii
scapula; radius
Origin, insertion of brachialis
Humerus; ulna
Origin, insertion of triceps brachii
Scapula and humerus; ulna
Origin, insertion of flexors
Humerus pretty much, plus some ulna/radius action; metacarpals and phalanges
Origin, insertion of sternocleidomastoid
Sternum and clavicle; temporal bone, also occipital bone + mastoid process
Main posture muscles, also used for lifting using back (extending trunk of body)
erector spinae muscles
Origin, insertion of psoas major
Lumbar vertebrae; femur
Origin, insertion of iliacus
Ilium; with psoas major into femur
Origin, insertion of gluteus maximus
Ilium, sacrum, coccyx, aponeurosis of sacrospinalis; iliotibial tract of fascia lata and femur
Origin, insertion of gluteus medius
Ilium; femur
Origin, insertion of adductor longus
Pubis & pubic symphysis
Origin, insertion of quadriceps femoris
Ilium for rectus femoris, femur for the vastus muscles; patella via quadriceps tendon, tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
Origin, insertion of sartorius
Ilium; tibia
Origin, insertion of hamstrings
Ischium + femur for biceps femoris, ischium for rest of 'em; Fibula & tibula for biceps, just tibia for others
Origin, insertion of tibialis anterior
tibia; first metatarsal & first cuneiform
Origin, insertion of soleus
Fibula & tibia; calcaneus via achilles tendon
Origin, insertion of gastrocnemius
Femur; calcaneus via achilles tendon
Function of frontal belly
raise eyebrows
Function of occipital belly
draw back scalp
Function of orbicularis oris
close and protrude lips
Function of buccinator
sucks cheeks in for chewing and shit
Function of platysma
depressing mandible for chewing, pouting
Function of zygomaticus major
Smile or laugh (draws angle of mouth upward)
Function of orbicularis oculi
closes eye
Function of rectus abdominus
flexes vertebral column, compresses abs to aid in defecation, urination, forced expiration, childbirth
What muscles are involved in forced expiration?
rectus abdominus, internal intercostals
Increased strength of a contraction that occurs when 2nd stimulus before muscle has completely relaxed
wave stimulus
Function of external oblique
contract both, flexes vertebral column; contract one, rotates it laterally
Function of internal oblique
contract both, flexes vertebral column; contract one, rotates it laterally
Function of transverse abdomen
compresses abdomen
Function of diaphragm
contraction flattens, increasing vertical dimension of thoracic cavity = inhalation; relaxation for normal exhalation
Function of external intercostals
Contraction elevated ribs, increasing front to back, side to side dimensions of thoracic cavity = inhalation; relaxation for normal exhalation
Function of internal intercostals
draws ribs together to decrease dimensions of thoracic cavity = forced exhalation
Function of pectoralis minor
abducts scapula, rotates it downward; elevates ribs during forced inhalation when scapula is fixed
Function of trapezius
elevates scapula, adducts scapula, depress and upward rotate scapula, stabilize scapula.

Layman's: Shrugs shoulders, extends head, elevates scapula
Function of pectoralis major
adducts and rotates, flexes and extends arm at shoulder joint
Function of latissimus dorsi
Extends, adducts, rotates arm medially @ shoulder joint; draws arm downward and backward (chin ups & pull downs)
Function of deltoid
Abducts, flexes, extends and rotates arm @ shoulder joint
Function of supraspinatus
assists deltoid w/ abducting arm @ shoulder jt

Helps abduct humerus
Muscles that stabilize shoulder
rotator cuffs
Function of infraspinatus
rotate are laterally @ shoulder jt
Function of teres major
Extends arm @ shoulder jt, assist w/ adduction & rotation of arm medially @ shoulder jt
Function of teres minor
Rotate arm laterally, extend arm
Function of biceps brachii
Flex & supinate forearm @ elbow, flex arm at shoulder
Function of brachialis
Flex forearm @ elbow jt
Function of triceps
Extend forearm @ elbow, extend arm @ shoulder jt
Function of flexors
flex and abduct hands @ wrist, flex phalanges
Function of extensors
Extend hand/phalanges
Function of sternocleidomastoid
Contract both, flex head, contract one, rotate head
Function of hip flexors
flex & rotate thigh laterally, flex vertebral column
Function of gluteus maximus
extend & rotate thigh laterally @ hip jt, helps lock knee in extension
Function of gluteus medius
Abducts & rotates thigh medially @ hip
Function of adductor longus
Adducts, rotates, flexes thigh @ hip jt
Function of quadriceps
extend leg @ knee jt; rectus femoris alone flexes thigh @ hip
Function of hamstrings
flex leg @ knee, extend thigh @ hip
Function of gastrocnemius
Plantar flexion, flex leg @ knee
Function of soleus
plantar flexion
Function of tibialis anterior
dorsiflexion, inversion of foot