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58 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Gross Anatomy
The study of the body, it's various structures, and how they relate to eachother (big stuff you can pick up and look at w/ naked eye)
Histology
microscopic anatomy (study of tissues)
Cytology
cellular anatomy (study of individual cells)
Gross
Macroscopic anatomy
Embryology
Developmental anatomy
Teratology
anatomical disorders during development (birth defects)
Pathology
disease states both natural and environmental
Hippocrates
father of medicine, disease is a natural process
Aristotle
father of comparative medicine, embryology, considered human-kind as an animal, coined term anatome- cutting things up to find whats inside
Galen
Greek physician, father of modern human anatomy
Andreas Vesalius
foather of modern medicine, aurthor of first book on human anatomy
posteriour
back
anterior
front
superior
up
inferior
below
para-sagittal
divides body into r/l portions
mid-sagittal
divides body into equal r/l halves
coronal (frontal)
divides body into ant./post. portions
Transverse (cross)
divides body into sup./inf. portions
superior
above [*cranial- toward head]
inferior
below [*caudal- toward tail]
anterior
front [ventral- away from backbone]
posterior
back [dorsal- toward backbone]
medial
toward the midline of the body
lateral
away from the midline of the body
proximal
closer to the reference point
distal
distant to the reference point
cavities
protect organs, restrict organ motion
levels of organization in body
chemical<cellular<organ<organism
cell membrane
barrier, filter, interface
cell appendages
flagellum, cilia, villi
flagellum
propulsion (sperm)
cilia
"sweeping motion" moves exterior particles
villi
increase surface are for secrete/absorb
cytoskeleton
microfilaments + microtubles, some are very structured others are just sacs
cytoplasm
cell contents (cytosol + organelles)
mitochondria
burns oxygen/sugar to produce ATP
endoplasmic reticulum
synthesis of cell products, helps cell make whatever it is suppose to make
golgi apparatus
storage of cell products
secretory vesicles
expulsion of cell products
nucleus
control center (DNA, RNA)
tissue
group of similar cells which are combined to perform a specific function
preparation of tissues for viewing
planes of section (organ-wise), preservation, imbedding, sectioning, and mounting, tissue staining, viewing
Basic types of tissue
epithelium, connective, muscle, neural
epithelium
cellular sheet protect, absorb, secrete
connective
fibrous, supportive
muscle
contractile proteins
neural
electically conductive
cell shape
flat, cube-shaped, colums, irregular
limination
number of layers
ornamentation
projections (cilia, flagella, microvilli)
epithelia 4 main functions
protection, absoption, secretion, excretion
epithelial tissues 5 characteristics
cellular (made of cells attached to a membrane), polarity (has a top and bottom) basement membrane, avascular (dont come into contact w/ blood vessels), regeneration
epithelia
sheets of tissues
mucous membrane
lines cavities/surfaces that are exposed to the external environment and keeps them moist (keep things well lubricated, very well supplied w/ blood vessels right outside basement membrane)
serous membrane
covers organs/lines body body cavities and produces a lubricant to aid the organs as they move
synovial membrane
lines joint cavities, and provides for exchange of fluids/solutes b/t the joint cavity and the adjacent tissues (found on ends of bone)
cutanious membrane
(skin) covers body, thick, relatively waterproof, abrasion resistant