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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
mediastinum is
central compartment of thoracic cavity
mediastinum is flanked on both sides by
pleural sacs
mediastinum extends from
superior to inferior thoracic apetures
aortic arch, supine position, location
superior to transverse thoracic plane
central tendon of diaphragm, supine position, location
level of xiphisternal junction (T9)
aortic arch, standing position, location
transected by transverse thoracic plane
central tendon of diaphragm, standing position, location
mid level of xiphoid process (disc btwn T9-T10)
mediastinum, divisions
superior and inferior parts
dividing line for mediastinum
transverse thoracic plane
superior mediastinum located
superior to transverse thoracic plane passing through sternal angle and the IV disc between T4 and T5
inferior mediastinum divided into
three parts: anterior, middle, posterior
superior mediastinum contains
thymus, superior vena cava, brachiocephalic veins, arch of aorta, vagus & phrenic nn, cardiac n plexus, l recurrent laryngeal n, trachea, esopghagus, thoracic duct, prevertebral mm
thymus is
lymphoid organ that produces lymphocytes
thymus, location
most anterior in superior mediastinum
thymus, location in rel to sternum
just posterior to sternum
after puberty, thymus
gradually degreades and is replaced by fat
blood supply to thymys
internal thoracic and superior thyroid aa
great vessels of the superior mediastinum include
brachiocephalic veins
brachiocephalic veins formed by
union of the subclavian and internal jugular veins bilat.
R & L brachiocephalic veins unite at
first costal cartilage
R & L brachiocephalic veins unite to form
superior vena cava
L brachiocephalic v, size
twice as long as R
R brachiocephalic vein receives lymph from
right lymphatic duct
L brachiocephalic vein receives lymph from
the thoracic duct
lymphatic circulation (systemic), 3/4 of body's lymph drains into
thoracic duct on L
lymphatic circulation (systemic), 1/4 of body's lymph drains into
R lymphatic duct
3 great vessels from aortic arch
brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid a, L subclavian a
brachiocephalic trunk lies
anterior to trachea and posterior to L brachiocephalic v
brachiocephalic trunk divides into
R common carotid and R subclavian aa
L common carotid a ascends into
neck posterior to L sternoclavicular joint
L subclavian a is
most posterior and ascends lateral to trachea
cross section, slide 11
phrenic nn lie on
anterior surface of anterior scalene mm as they pass inferiorly into thorax
vagus n lies
deep in carotid sheath btwn common carotid aa and internal jugular vv in neck
R vagus n gives rise to
R recurrent laryngeal n
point at which vagus gives rise to R rec. laryng. N
anteromedial to arch of right subclavian a
R recurrent laryngeal n wraps
posteroirly around arch of R subclavian a to ascend in the tracheoesophageal groove to innervate all of the intrinsic mm of the larynx except the cricothyroid m
L vagus n gives rise to
L recurrent laryngeal n
point at which vagus gives rise to L rec. laryng. N
anteromedial to arch of aorta
L recurrent laryngeal n. wraps
posteriorly around aortic arch to ascend in manner similar to R recurrent laryngeal n.
superior phrenic vessels arise from
inferior part of aorta
anterior view of thoracic aorta & its branches, slide 14
variations in aortic arch branches
~65% of individuals, typical branches arising from aortic arch are
brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid & left subclavian aa
~27% of individuals, the L common carotid arises from
the brachiocephalic trunk
2.5% of individuals, brachiocephalic trunk
fails to form, resulting in 4 individual vessels arising from arch
~5% of individuals, L vertebral artery
arises from aortic arch
~1.5% of individuals have
R & L brachiocephalic trunks
artery that may arise as the last branch of the aorta
retroesophageal right subclavian a.
posterior mediastinum & contents
contents of posterior mediastinum
thoracic aorta, thoracic duct, posterior mediastinal lymph nodes, axygos & hemiazygos vv, esophagus, esophageal plexus, thoracic sympathetic trunks, thoracic splanchnic nn
anterior vagal trunk arises from
L vagus n
R vagus N gives rise to
posterior vagal trunk
superior part of esophagus innervated by
recurrent laryngeal nn & by sympathetic fibers from cell bodies in the middle cervical ganglion running in on the inferior thyroid aa
lower 1/2 of esophagus supplied by
esophageal plexus
esophageal plexus contains
parasympathetics from R & L vagus nn and sympathetics from gray rami of upper 4 thoracic ganglia
motor & secretomotor supply to esophagus
vagus n.
sensory to esophagus
vagus n.
vasomotor supply to esophagus
sympathetic nn
esophageal aa supplied by
thoracic aorta
slide 21: esophageal aa
vessels that arise from anterior portion of thoracic aorta
esophageal, mediastinal, & pericardial vessels
superior phrenic vessels arise from
inferior part of aorta
paired intercostal aa arise from
aorta
intercostal vessels lie in the costal groove as
VAN - vein, artery, nerve (superior to inferior)
azygos system includes
azygos and hemiazygos veins
azygos system supplies
venous drainage to the mediastinum
thoracic duct drains
lymph into the venous system
azygos venous system receives its name from
fact that it is unpaired & the vessels of the two sides are asymmetrical
thoracic duct, origin
cisterna chili
thoracic duct empties into
internal jugular and left subclavian vein juncture on left side
lymphatic duct empties
into same junction as thoracic duct, but on the right side
diaphragm, function
covers inferior thoracic aperture, separating the thoracic & abdominal cavities
muscle fibers of diaphragm converge at
central tendon
structures that pass from thorax to abdomen via diaphragm
inferior vena cava, r phrenic n, pericardiophrenic a, esophagus, vagus nn, thoracic aorta, thoracic duct
structures that pass through diaphragm at T8
inferior vena cava & right phrenic n & pericardiophrenic a (through central tendon)
structures that pass through diaphragm at T10
esophags & vagus nn (through muscle)
structures that pass through the diaphragm at T12
thoracic aorta & thoracic duct (posteriorly through aortic hiatus)
blood supply to diaphragm
mainly from branches of abdominal aorta; also musculophrenic, intercostal branches, and branches of thoracic aorta
diaphragm, innervation
phrenic nerve (C3-C5)
phrenic nerves, course
penetrate diaphragm and supply it from underneath