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144 Cards in this Set

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Describe how hormones bring about their effects on their target organs.
Hormones bind to specific protein receptors on the cell membrane or in the cell. Steroidal hormones can enter the target cell. Nonsteroidal hormones cannot enter but instead bind to the plasma membrane.
Explain how various endocrine glands are stimulated to release their hormonal products (categories of stimulus)
Hormonal stimulus is when hormones stimulate the production of glands.
Humoral stimulus is when chemicals in the blood stimulate the production of glands.
Neural stimulus is when nerves stimulate the production of glands.
Explain how negative feedback mechanisms regulate the blood levels of certain hormones.
Negative feedback is the chief means for regulating the blood levels of certai hormones. The hormones begin production because of an internal or external stimulus. Then, the increasing hormone level inhibits the production of more hormones.
Explain the functional relationship between the pituitary gland the hypothalamus.
The hypothalamus releases hormones that control the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland. The hypothalamus also makes the hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic, which are stored in the posterior pituitary gland.
Describe the effect of aging on the endocrine glands and give one example of deficiency of the endocrine system in old age.
Endocrine glands work efficiently until old age, leading to decreased lgand function which can have many different effects depending on the target cells.
Diabetes mellitus is an example of a deficiency of the endocrine system.
Muscle atropy could also occur.
Menopause occurs in women.
List three examples of organs from other body systems that release hormones.
Small intestine
Heart
Placenta
Chemical messenger released into the blood by endocrine glands
hormone
tissue, cell, or organ affected by a certain hormone
target organ
glands with no ducts
endocrine glands
glands with ducts
exocrine glands
controls growth of long bones and muscles; anterior pituitary
growth hormone
stimulates milk production in females after birth; anterior pituitary
prolactin
stimulates contractions during labor; posterior pituitary
oxytocin
inhibits urine production; posterior pituitary
antidiuretic hormone
controls rate of glucose oxidation; thyroid
thyroid hormone
decreases blood calcium levels; thyroid
calcitonin
increases blood calcium levels; parathyroid
parathyroid hormone
controls mineral or salt content of blood; adrenal cortex
mineralocorticoids
works as part of the sympathetic nervous system; adrenal medulla
epinephrine
decreases blood glucose level by increasing cells' ability to take in glucose; pancreas
insulin
stimulates development of female secondary sex characteristics; ovaries
estrogen
necessary for continuous sperm production; testes
testosterone
relaxes pelvis for easier birth passage
relaxin
white of the eye
sclera
contains dark pigment which prevents light from scattering in the eye; iris
choroid
contains photoreceptors; inner tunic
retina
sees gray tones
rods
sees colors
cones
ability of the eye to focus on close objects
accommodation
unequal curvatures in cornea or lens
astigmatism
area where optic nerve leaves eyeball
blind spot
hardening of lens, clouds vision
cataract
eye focuses light correctly
emmetropia
disorder caused by blocked drainage of aqueous humor
glaucoma
farsightedness
hyperopia
nearsightedness
myopia
bending of light when it moves through a substance
refraction
movement of eyes medially when viewing close objects
convergence reflex
constriction of pupil when exposed to bright light
photopupillary reflex
pupils constrict when viewing close objects
accommodation pupillary reflex
determines up and down; receptors respond to gravity in the vestibule
static equilibrium
receptors in semilunar canals responds to angular or rotational movements of the body
dynamic equilibrium
smell receptors
olfactory receptors
taste receptors
taste buds
Describe image formation on the retina
The image is refracted. (Refraction is the bending of light). The image on the retina is called a real image. it is reversed, inverted, and smaller.
Trace the pathway of light through the eye to the retina
1. Cornea
2. Aqueous humor
3. Pupil
4. Aqueous humor
5. Lens
6. Vitreous humor
7. Retina
Explain the function of the organ of Corti in hearing
The organ of Corti is for hearing within the cochlea. Hair cells in the organ of Corti respond to vibrations and send messages to the cochlear nerve.
Define sensorineural deafness and conduction deafness and give possible causes of each.
Sensorineual deafness is caused by damage or degeneration to the organ of Corti, the cochlear nerve, or the neurons of the auditory complex. This is caused by excessive listening to loud music, for example.
Conduction deafness is caused by a blockage that stops the vibrations from being transmitted to the fluids of the inner ear. This is caused by something mechanical, such as built up ear wax, ruptured ear drum, or fused ossicles.
Explain how one is able to localize the source of a sound.
We have 2 ears, so we hear "in stereo". The sounds reach the ears at different times, so we are able to tell where the sound is coming from.
What happens to the special sense organs as we age?
The sense organs become less active. In the eyes, presbyopia happens with aging, which is a loss of elasticity of the lens. The eyes become dry and more vulnerable to bacterial infection and irritation. The organ of Corti suffers from degeneration or atropy, and it is hard to hear high pitch tones and speech sounds. This is called presbycusis. In the 40s, smell and taste become diminished because of the loss of these receptor cells.
List the five basic taste sensations
Sweet
Salty
Bitter
Sour
Umami
List the factors that can modify taste
temperature
texture
smell
Explain the difference between the pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit
The pulmonary circuit brings blood to the lungs for gas exchange and brings it back to the heart.
The systemic circuit brings oxygen- and nutrient-rich blood to the body tissues
List three factors that influence blood pressure
Autonomic nervous system
Temperature
Diet
List two ways to improve cardiovascular health
Exercise regularly
Eat a diet low in fats and cholesterol
Circulation of blood path
Superior or inferior vena cava
Right atrium
Right ventricle
Pulmonary trunk
Pulmonary arteries
Lungs
Pulmonary veins
Left atrium
Left ventricle
Aorta
Body arteries
Capillaries
Body veins
Heart contraction
systole
heart relaxation
diastole
amount of blood pumped out in each heart beat
stroke volume
events of one complete heart beat
cardiac cycle
sound of valves opening and closing
heart sounds
abnormal or unusual heart sounds
murmurs
thick vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the heart
arteries
vessels carrying blood back to the heart
veins
small vessels only one cell layer thick for easy gas exchange
capillaries
large artery coming out of the heart
aorta
large vein leading into the heart
vena cava
pressure of blood exerted against inner walls of blood vessels
blood pressure
pressure wave through arteries caused by beat of left ventricle
pulse
high blood pressure
hypertension
changes in the walls of large arteries consisting of lipid deposits on artery walls
atherosclerosis
interior layer of a blood vessel consisting of epithelial cells
tunica intima
layer of a blood vessel consisting of mostly smooth muscle
tunica media
layer of a blood vessel consisting of fibrous connective tissue
tunica externa
List three examples of cranial nerves
optic
olfactory
vagus
List two factors that may have harmful effects on brain development of newborns
Maternal infection
Maternal smoking
List two congenital brain disorders
cerebral palsy
anencephaly
Explain why brain size and weight decrease with age
The human brain reaches its full size in a young adult. Over the next 60 years or so, neurons are damages and they die. Because the nervous system is formed before birth, these neurons don't grow back, so the brain size and weight decreases.
List the major structures found in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
Central - brain and spinal cord
Peripheral - all other nerves
Cells that supports, insulate, and protect neurons of CNA
neuroglia
nerve cells
neurons
contains nucleus of neuron
cell body
fibers which send impulse to cell body
dendrites
fibers that send impulse away from cell body
axon
branching ends of axon
axonal terminal
gap between axonal terminal and next neuron
synaptic cleft
fatty material which wraps around nerve fibers to insulate
myelin sheath
produce myelin sheath
Schwann cells
collections of cell bodies in CNA
nuclei
collections of cell bodies in PNS
ganglia
bundles of fibers running through CNS
tracts
bundles of fibers running through PNS
nerves
myelinated fibers of CNS
white matter
unmyelinated fibers of CNS
gray matter
neurons which conduct impulses from sensory receptors to CNS
sensory neurons
neurons which transmit impulses from CNS to muscles and glands
motor neurons
neural pathway of reflex
reflex arc
rapid, predictable, and involuntary response
reflex
t or f
Cerebrospinal fluid forms a watery cushion around the brain and spinal cord
true
t or f
the blood-brain barrier helps to keep the brain's internal environment chaotic by bringing in blood-borne substances
false
t or f
a brain contusion usually causes permanent damage
true
t or f
a concussion is also known as cerebral edema
false
t or f
strokes of CVAs are caused by a blood clot or rupture
true
t or f
Alzheimer's disease results in increased cognitive and memory functions
false
t or f
the spinal cord is a one-way conduction pathway to the brain
false
t or f
gray matter is found on the interior of the spinal cord
true
what is the largest brain region?
cerebrum
What are elevated ridges of the brain's cortex called?
gyri
Which lobe controls vision?
occipital
Which lobe contains te primary motor area?
frontal
Which part is not in the diencephalon?
pons
Which part of the brain stem controls visceral activities such as heart rate?
medulla oblongata
What is the order o the meninges from exterior to interior?
Dura mater
pia mater
arachnoid mater
Sympathetic or parasympathetic
prepares the body for a threat
sympathetic
sympathetic or parasympathetic
resting and digesting system
parasympathetic
sympathetic or parasympathetic
includes some cranial nerves and nerves between S2 and S4 of spinal cord
parasympathetic
sympathetic or parasympathetic
increases heart rate and blood pressure
sympathetic
sympathetic or parasympathetic
decreases demands on cardiovascular system
parasympathetic
sympathetic or parasympathetic
"fight or flight" reflexes
sympathetic
sympathetic or parasympathetic
includes nerves between T1 and L2 of spinal cord
sympathetic
Events of the nerve impulse in the correct sequence
Resting membrane
Depolarization
Action potential
Repolarization
List the two main components of blood
plasma
formed elements
What is the volume of blood in an average-sized adult?
5-6 liters
List five components of plasma
water
salts
respiratory gases
hormones
plasma proteins
What happens during a transfusion reaction and why does it occur?
Agglutination occurs because the antigens on the red blood cells are not the same. The antibodies of RBCs bind to foreign red blood cells which causes clumping. After clumping, the RBCs are lysed, or ruptured, to kill them.
Explain the basis of physiological jaundice in some newborns.
Physiological jaundice occurs when the fetal red blood cells are destroyed at such a rapid rate that the immature fetal liver cannot rid the body of the products of hemoglobin breakdown int he bile fast enough.
List two blood disorders found in the elerly
anemia
clotting disorders
red blood cells, carry oxygen to all parts of the body
erythrocytes
white blood cells, part of immune system
leukocytes
needed to clot blood
platelets
decrease in oxygen-carrying ability of blood
anemia
increase in red blood cells
polycythemia
high white blood cell count, usually indicated infection
leukocytosis
low white blood cell count
leukopenia
stem cell producing all types of formed elements
hemocytoblast
stoppage of blood flow
hemostasis
clot that develops in unbroken blood vessel
thrombus
clot that breaks away from vessel wall
embolus
insufficient number of circulating platelets
thrombocytopenia
genetic disease resulting from lack of any blood clotting factors
hemophilia
blood with A antigens
type A
blood with B antigens
type B
blood with A and B antigens, least common type
type AB
blood without A or B antigens, most common type
type O