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114 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The left and right halves of the mandible join to form what structure?
- mental symphysis
What muscle is located at the external surface of the angle of the mandible? (bulges when you grind your teeth)
- masseter muscle
What is the artery called that is located at the inferior border of the mandible and the anterior border of the masseter muscle? What lies on top of the masseter muscle?
- facial artery
- facial vein
Where is the mastoid process of the skull located?
- behind the auricle of the ear
What does the hyoid bone articulate with?
- Nothing!
- suspended by muscle
Where is the hyoid bone located in respect to the mandible? At what vertebrae?
- inferior to mandible
- CV3
What does the hyoid bone look like?
- single bone with a thick central body and greater and lesser horns on each side
What connects the hyoid to the larynx?
- thyrohyoid membrane
What does the thyroid cartilage look like?
- shield shape with 2 plates aligning in front
- inferior horn that interacts with the cricoid cartilage of the larynx
- superior horns that doesn't interact with anything
What level is the thyroid cartilage at? What other structures are here?
- CV6
- pharynx/esophagus junction
- beginning trachea
- middle cervical sympathetic ganglion
- where the vertebral artery first enters the transverse foramen
What are the borders of the posterior triangle?
- anterior: posterior border of sternocleidomastoid muscle
- posterior: anterior border of trapezius
- inferiorly by clavicle
What 2 things does the sternocleidomastoid muscle separate?
- the anterior and posterior triangles of the neck
What is skin innervated by?
- C2, 3, 4
What nerves make up the cervical plexus? (nerves in superficial cervical fascia that surround the neck)
- C1-C4 ventral primary rami
What are the 4 nerves that make up the cervical plexus and both their names?
- C2: lesser occipital
- C2,3: great auricular
- C2,3: transverse cervical
- C3,4: supraclavicular
Where is the lesser occipital nerve (C2) located?
- follows posterior border of sternocleidomastoid superior to behind the ear
What does the lesser occipital nerve (C2) innervate?
- skin of neck and scalp posterosuperiorly to auricle of the ear
Where is the great auricular nerve (C2,3) located?
- vertically on the surface of the sternocleidomastoid to in front of the ear
What does the great auricular nerve (C2,3) innervate?
- skin of the parotid region and auricle
- skin of angle of the mandible to the mastoid process
Where is the transverse cervical nerves (C2,3) located?
- cross sternocleidomastoid horizontally
What do the transverse cervical nerves (C2,3) innervate?
- skin of anterior triangle of the neck
- joins cervical branch of the facial nerve inferior to the parotid gland
Where is the supraclavicular nerves (C3,4) located?
- travels inferiorly across the clavicle
How many branches does the supraclavicular nerves have?
- 3: medial, lateral, intermediate
What do the supraclavicular nerves (C3,4) innervate?
- skin of the inferior half of the posterior triangle
- skin of the upper thoracic and deltoid regions
Where is the platysma muscle located?
- superficial fascia in thoracic region to the inferior aspect of the mandible
- superficial to external jugular veins and trunks of cutaneous nerves
- inferior to superficial fascia
What is the platysma muscle innervated by?
- facial nerve (C7)
What is the external jugular vein formed by?
- union of the retromandibular and posterior auricular veins
Where is the external jugular vein located?
- vertically across sternocleidomastoid muscle from parotid region inferiorly to the antero-inferior area of posterior triangle to drain into subclavian vein
What are the 2 layers of deep cervical fascia?
1) investing layer of deep cervical fascia (anterior layer)
2) prevertebral fascia (posterior layer)
What does the investing layer of deep cervical fascia entail?
- invests/surrounds the muscles: covers both superficial and deep trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles
- 'roof' of anterior and posterior triangles
What does the prevertebral fascia surround?
- vertebral column and the muscles closely related to it
- forms carpet of the posterior triangle
What does visceral fascia surround?
- viscera of the neck such as: pharynx, esophagus, larynx, trachea, and thyroid
What does the carotid sheath surround? How many are there in the neck?
- carotid vessels, internal jugular vein, vagus nerve
-2
What does the middle cervical fascia surround?
- the infrahyoid strap muscles (anterior to visceral fascia)
The posterior triangle of the neck is a 3-D space, what forms the roof?
- investing layer of deep cervical fascia (surrounds SEM and trapezius)
The posterior triangle of the neck is a 3-D space, what forms the floor and carpet?
- floor: muscles! (splenius capitis, splenius cervicis, levator scapulae, posterior/middle/anterior scalene)
- carpet: prevertebral fascia that surrounds the muscle
What can be found between the investing and prevertebral layers of deep fascia (roof and carpet)
- spinal accessory nerve
- inferior belly of omohyoid muscle
- transverse cervical vessels (before splits to trapezius)
- cutaneous nerves to skin (cervical plexus)
What can be found between the carpet (prevertebral fascia) and the floor (scalene muscles)
- dorsal scapular nerve (C5)
- long thoracic nerve (C5,6,7)
- phrenic nerve (C3,4,5)
- proximal portion of brachial plexus
-3rd part of subclavian artery
What does the spinal accessory nerve/ cranial nerve/CN11 innervate?
- trapezius and sternocleidomastoid
What does the dorsal scapular nerve (C5) innervate?
- rhomboids
What does the long thoracic nerve (C5,6,7) innervate?
- serratus anterior
What does the phrenic nerve (C3,4,5) innervate?
- diaphragm
Where is sternocleidomastoid muscle located?
- anterior border of posterior triangle
Where does the sternocleidomastoid muscle originate?
- manubrium
- medial end of clavicle
Where does the sternocleidomastoid muscle insert?
- mastoid process
What is the action of the sternocleidomastoid muscle?
- contraction of one: turns head to opposite side
- contraction both: flexes neck (look down)
- accessory muscle of respiration
What innervates the sternocleidomastoid muscle?
- accessory nerve (CN11)
- C2 and C3 branches
How many muscles comprises the scalene muscles?
- 3 (anterior/middle/posterior)
Where are the scalene muscles located?
- floor of the lateral neck, covered by prevertebral fascia of deep cervical fascia
What innervates the scalene muscles/
- cervical nerves
What do the scalene muscles do?
- inspiration muscles
- act on vertebral column of neck
Where is the origin of anterior scalene?
- anterior tubercle of transverse processes of CV3 to CV6
Where does the anterior scalene muscles insert?
- scalene tubercle of the first rib between the grooves for the subclavian artery and vein
What innervates the anterior scalene?
- C5-7
What nerve and artery pass on the anterior surface of the anterior scalene but deep to the prevertebral fascia of deep cervical fascia
- Phrenic nerve
- transverse cervical artery
Which scalene muscle is the larges?
- middle scalene
Where is the origin of the middle scalene muscle?
- posterior tubercle of the transverse process of CV2-7
Where does the middle scalene muscle insert?
- superior surface of the first rib
- posterior to brachial plexus and subclavian artery
What innervates the middle scalene muscle?
- C3-8
Which scalene muscle is the smallest?
- posterior scalene
Where does the posterior scalene arise from?
- posterior tubercle of transverse process of CV5-7
Where does the posterior scalene insert?
- 2nd rib
What innervates the posterior scalene muscle?
- C7-8
Do the anterior/posterior primary rami of nerves form the brachial plexus?
- anterior
Which nerves form the brachial plexus?
- C5-8, T1
Which 2 muscles can the brachial plexus be found between?
- anterior and middle scalene
What larger group of muscles is the omohyoid muscles part of?
- infrahyoid muscles
Which part of omohyoid muscle is found in the posterior triangle?
- inferior belly
Which part of the omohyoid muscle is found within the anterior triangle?
- superior belly
What is the origin of the omohyoid muscle?
- upper border of scapula
Where does the omohyoid muscle insert?
- lower border of the hyoid bone
What innervates the omohyoid muscle?
- ansa cervicalis
What 2 structures are found between the anterior and middle scalene?
- subclavian artery
- anterior primary rami that form the brachial plexus
What structures lie on the anterior surface of the anterior scalene muscle?
- prevertebral fascia of deep cervical fascia (covers muscles around vertebral column)
- subclavian vein
- phrenic nerve
- transverse cervical artery
- suprascapular artery
- omohyoid muscle
Which structures can be found immediately superior to the first rib from anterior to posterior?
- subclavian vein
- anterior scalene
- subclavian artery
- lower portion of brachial plexus
- middle scalene
What is the root of the neck?
- base of the cervical region
- region superior to the manubrium of the sternum into the superior mediastinum
- anterior to the scalenes and prevertebral muscles
- lateral to visceral part of neck
Where is the sternoclavicular joint located?
- between medial end of clavicle and manubrium (synovial joint)
What are the ligaments of the sternoclavicular joint?
- costoclavicular ligament
- articular capsule (over articular disc)
- anterior/posterior sternoclavicular ligaments (superior portion manubrium to clavicle)
- interclavicular ligament (superior to manubrium from right to left medial end of clavicle)
What is the main artery of the root of the neck?
- subclavian artery
What does the subclavian artery branch off of on the right? on the left?
- brachiocephalic trunk from the aortic arch
- aortic arch
Where does the subclavian artery 'end' (changes into axillary artery)?
- lateral border of the first rib
What are the 4 main branches off of the subclavian artery?
1) internal thoracic artery
2) vertebral artery
3) thyrocervical trunk
4) costocervical trunk
Where is the internal thoracic artery located on the subclavian vein and where does it go?
- antero-inferior aspect of subclavian
- descends posteriorly to sternal end of clavicle into thorax
Where does the vertebral artery arise from the subclavian artery?
- postero-superior aspect of subclavian
Where does the vertebral artery go?
- enters transverse foramen of CV6
- ascends
- goes into suboccipital triangle to supply brain (esp brainstem)
Where does the thyrocervical trunk come off of the subclavian artery?
- very short trunk on superior aspect
How many branches come off of the thyrocervical trunk? What are they?
-3
1) inferior thyroid artery
2) surprascapular artery
3) transverse cervical artery
Where does the inferior thyroid artery travel?
- superiorly along medial border of anterior scalene to CV6 (near internal jugular vein)
- then branches
What does the inferior thyroid artery split into?
- ascending cervical artery
- inferior laryngeal artery
Where is the ascending cervical artery?
- parallels phrenic nerve on the anterior surface of anterior scalene
Where is the inferior laryngeal artery?
- accompanies the recurrent laryngeal nerve
Where does the suprascapular artery travel?
- anterior to anterior scalene and behind the sternocleidomastoid
- continues behind clavicle to scapular notch and crosses above the transverse scapular ligament
Where does the transverse cervical artery travel?
- between anterior scalene and sternocleidomastoid
- crosses posterior triangle of neck
- divides into 2 branches
What are the 2 branches of transverse cervical artery?
- superficial branch
- deep branch
Where does the superficial branch off of the transverse cervical artery travel?
- accompanies the accessory nerve, deep to the trapezius
Where does the deep branch of the transverse cervical artery travel?
- accompanies the dorsal scapular nerve
- deep to levator scapulae and rhomboids
What is special about the superficial branch of the transverse cervical artery?
- may arise separates from the thyrocervical trunk
- then known as superficial cervical artery
What is another places besides the transverse cervical artery can the deep branch arise from?
- third part of the sublcavian
- then known as dorsal scapular artery
Where does the costocervical trunk arise from?
- posterior aspect of subclavian
- short then divides into 2 braches
What are the 2 branches of the costocervical trunk?
- deep cervical artery
- highest inetercostal artery
What does the deep cervical artery off of the costocervical trunk supply?
- the deep muscles on the back of the neck
What does the highest inetercostal artery off of the costocervical trunk supply?
- first 2 intercostal spaces
Where does the subclavian vein travel?
- begins lateral border of first rib
- passes over anterior scalene
- joins internal jugular to form braciocephalic vein
Where does the thoracic duct drain?
- junction of the subclavian and internal jugular veins on the LEFT side
What is the duct called that feeds into the right subclavian vein?
- the right lymphatic duct
What 2 ducts feed into the right lymphatic duct?
- subclavian trunk
- jugular trunk
Where does the internal jugular vein travel?
- begins at jugular foramen (base of skull)
- travels deep to sternocleidomastoid
- joins subclavian and forms brachiocephaic vein
Where does the anterior jugular vein travel?
- inferiorly close to midline in the anterior triangle of the neck
- joins a jugular arch which is above the jugular notch of the sternum
What does the jugular arch empty into?
- external jugular vein, some internal jugular vein
Where does the vagus nerve travel on the right side?
- anterior to subclavian artery, medial to phrenic, posterior to anterior scalene
- right recurrent laryngeal is given off and curls around subclavian artery
Where does the vagus nerve travel on the left side?
- root of neck anterior to subclavian, medial to phrenic, and posterior to anterior scalene
- left recurrent laryngeal given off and goes under aorta and ligamentum arteriosos
What forms th ephrenic nerve?
- anterior rami of C3, 4, 5
Does the phrenic nerve run on the anterior or posterior surface of the anterior scalene muscle?
- anterior
What does the phrenic nerve innervate?
- diaphragm