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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the elements of the posterior mediastinum?
descending thoracic aorta, azygos venous system, esophagus, thoracic duct, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves
in which direction does the aortic arch curve?
from right to left
does the aorta run along the right or left side of the vertebrae?
slightly to the left
what are 6 branches of the aorta that leave in the posterior mediastinum?
posterior intercostal arteries, superior intercostal arteries, bronchial arteries, esophageal arteries, mediastinal arteries, and superior phrenic arteries
where does the azygos system of veins begin?
in the abdomen
which part of the azygos veinous system is on the right side of the vertebrae? The left side?
azygos vein; hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos
is the azygos system the same in every body?
no, it is HIGHLY variable
does the azygos system pass anterior of posterior to the diaphragm?
posterior
what happens to the azygos vein when it reaches the superior thoracic area?
it curves anteriorly into the superior vena cava
which veins does the azygos vein receive?
several posterior intercostal veins and the superior intercostal vein
of which vein is the superior intercostal vein a tributary?
upper thoracic posterior intercostal veins
is the hemiazygos inferior or superior to the accessory hemiazygos?
inferior
which vein does the accessory hemiazygos vein drain?
mid-thoracic posteior intercostal veins
which vein drains the upper posterior intercostal veins?
superior intercostal vein
where does the esophagus begin? Where does it pierce the diaphragm?
pharynx; esophageal hiatus
where does the esophagus terminate?
cardia of the stomach
is the esophagus normally to the right or left of the midline?
right
is the esophagus to the right of left of the midline when it pierces the diaphragm?
left
where does the esophagus narrow?
at the beginning, end, where it is distorted by aorta and left atrium
by which arteries it the esophagus supplied with blood?
aorta and posterior intercostal arteries
is the esophageal plexus predominantly parasympathetic or sympathetic fibers?
both
from which nerve do the parasympathetic fibers on the esophageal plexus arise?
vagus nerve
at the inferior border of the esophageal plexus, what two nerves emerge?
anterior and posterior vagal trunks
are parasympathetic synapses near to or far from the esophagus?
near
sympathetic nerves increase or decrease esophageal motility and secretions? Parasympathetic?
decrease; increase
the plexi in the wall of the esophagus are in charge of intrinsic or reflex activity?
both
what is the name for the main duct which drains lymph from the abdomen and lower part of the body?
thoracic duct
where does the thoracic duct begin?
in the cisterna chyle near the aorta in the abdomen
where does the thoracic duct cross the diaphragm? Where does it run along the vertebral column?
at the aortic hiatus; between the aorta and the azygos vein
which part of the body does the thoracic duct not cover?
upper right quadrant
where does the thoracic duct drain lymph?
junction of the left internal jugular vein and the subclavian vein
which type of sections does a CAT scan provide?
axial
which type of radiation is used in a CAT scan?
normal x-rays
what is the term used to describe the dimensionality of the CAT scan?
quasi 2 dimensional
anterior mediastinum is posterior to which border? It is anterior to which structure?
sternal angle; heart
how do posterior intercostal arteries on the right side of the rib cage arise from the aorta?
they must cross the vertebrae
at which vertebral level is the aortic hiatus? Esophageal hiatus?
T12; T10
what is a portal cable shunt?
when the azygos vein system acts as a shunt to get blood around blocked veins in abdomen
the thoracic duct is located between which two structures?
azygos and esophagus
the thoracic duct starts on the _____ side of the vertebrae and moves to the ______ side.
right; left
if you have a hard lymph node above the clavicle on the right side, what might you suspect? On the left side?
lung cancer; large area to deal with -- could have metastasized from anywhere in lower half of body
from superior to inferior, what is the order of intercostal arteries, nerves, and veins?
vein, artery, nerve (VAN)
where is sympathetic chain located compared to vertebrae? Which nerve is anterior to sympathetic chain?
anterolateral; greater splanchnic nerve
what is the difference between a bone window and a soft tissue window for CAT scans?
bone window highlights bones while a soft tissue window highlights soft tissue