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65 Cards in this Set

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There are 4 basic types of tissue:
connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue
supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues)
Connective tissue
Provides a covering (skin, the linings of the various passages inside the body)
Epithelial tissue
includes striated (also called voluntary) muscles that move the skeleton, and smooth muscle, such as the muscles that surround the stomach
Muscle tissue
Made up of nerve cells (neurons) and is used to carry "messages" to and from various parts of the body.
Nerve tissue
Functions of Epithelial Tissue
Protection, Ecretion, absorption, secretion and filtration.
Intrinsic Properties
1. cellularity, 2. polarity 3. basement membrane, 4. specialiazed contacts, 5. avascularity, regeneration.
Is form when basal lamina and reticular lamina are connect.
basement membrane
Nerve fibrous but no blood vessel
avascularity
property of epithelial to rebuit
regeneration
macula adherens
desmosomes
In vertebrates, there are three major types of cell junctions
Adherens junctions or Desmosomes
Gap junctions
Tight junctions
Is a junction between certain animal cell-types that allows different molecules and ions, mostly small intracellular signaling molecules (intracellular mediators), to pass freely between cells.
gap junction or nexus
Are the closely associated areas of two cells whose membranes join together forming a virtual impermeable barrier to fluid. It is a type of junctional complex only present in vertebrates.
Tight junctions
zonula occludens
Tight junctions
Is a cell structure specialized for cell-to-cell adhesion.
desmosome
macula adherens
desmosome
Made up of one or more cells that segret a product known as segreation.
gland
Glands that secrete their products (enzymes) into ducts (duct glands)
Exocrine glands
Secrete their products (hormones) directly into the bloodstream (ductless glands).
endocrine glands
Sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, stomach, liver and the pancreas.
exocrine glands
(sweat) glands are small tubular structures situated within and under the skin. They discharge sweat by tiny openings in the surface of the skin.
sudoriferous Gland
Glands exist in humans throughout the skin except in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.
SEBACEUOS GLAND
Shape of cells
flat, cubed, columnar
number cell layers
single simple, multiple stratified
found in the lining of nephrons, the walls of the renal tubules, and parts of the eye and thyroid.
Simple cuboidal eplithelia
epithelial cells with a cuboidal shape arranged in a single layer.
Simple cuboidal eplithelia
Lining blood vessel heart
endothelium
front cavitiesline of the membrane
mesothelium
It forms the lining of the stomach and intestines
Simple Columnar
found in the lines of the trachea as well as the upper respiratory tract.
Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelia
consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basement membrane.
stratified squamous epithelium
transitional columnar
changes and found bladder and uterous
what makes up connective tissue.
ground, fibers, cells
functions of connective tissue
1. protection, 2. binoling, 3. insolation, 4. transportation and 5. support.
what makes up ground substance?
interstitial fluid, cell adhesion protection, and proteoglycans
glycosamino glygan
keratan sulfate, hyalronic acid, chondrotin sulfate
3 type of fibers
1. collagen, 2. elastic, 3. reticular
connective tissue from middle layer
mesoderm
start of a tissue that covers the body surfaces. It emerges first and forms from the outermost of the germ layers.(outer layer)
ectoderm
inner layer of tissue
endoderm
Cell eating
Macrophages
give rise to antibodies
plasma cells
fat cells
adipocytes
There are two types of adipose tissue:
white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT),
resident(perminant) cell of several types of tissues and contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin.
mast cells
most widely distributed connective tissue type in vertebrates.
loose areolar
fat loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. Its main role is to store energy in the form of fat,
loose adipose tissue
consists of parallel, densely packed collagen fibers that form bands or sheets.
Dense regular connective tissue
The specific type of connective tissue found in the dermis
dende irregular
Connective tissue includes
1.Loose or areolar C.T.
2.Dense C.T.
3.Specialized C.T.
4.Adipose tissue
5.Blood cells
6.Bone
7.Cartilage
wall of the aorta and the elastic ligament of the spine
dense elastic
dense connective tissue which contains predominantly elastic fibers rather than collagen
Elastic tissue
which epidermal cell type is most numerous?

a. keratinocyte, b. melanocyte, c. langerhan's cell, d merkel cell.
a. keratinocyte
Which cell functions as part of the immune system?

a. keratinocyte, b. melanocyte, c. langerhan's cell, d merkel cell.
c. langerhan's cell
The epidermis provides a physical barrier due largely to the presence of

a. melamin, b. carotese, c. collagen d. keratin
d. keratin
Skin color is determined by

a. the amount blood, b. pigments, c. oxygenation level of the blood, d. all these
d.all these
The sensation of touch and pressure are picked up by receptors located in

a. stratum germinativum
b.the dermin
c. the hypodermis
d. the stratum corneum
b.the dermin
Which is not true statement about the papillary layers of the dermis?

a. it produces the pattern for fingerprints,
b.it is most responsible for the toughness of the skin?
c.it contains nerve endings that respond to the stimuli.
d. it is highly vascular
b.it is most responsible for the toughness of the skin?
Skin surface marking that reflect points of tight dermal attachment to underlying tissues are called

a. tension line
B. papillary ridges
c. flexure line
d. epidermal papillae
c. flexure line
which of the following is not an epidermal derivative?

a. hair
b. sweat gland
c. sensory receptor
d. sebaceous gland
c. sensory receptor
An arrector pili muscle

a. is associated with each sweat gland
b. can cause a hair to stand up straight
c. enables each hair to be stretched when wet
d. provide new cells for continued growth of its associated hair.
b. can cause a hair to stand up straight
The product of this type of sweat gland includes protein and lipid substance that become odoriferous as a result of bacteria action:

a. apocrine gland
b. eccrine gland
c. sebaceous gland
d. pancreatic gland
a. apocrine gland
Sebum

a. lubricates the surface of the skin and hair
b. consist od dead cells and fatty substances
c. in excess may cause seborrhea
d. all of these
d. all of these
The rule of nines is helpful clinically in

a. diagnosing skin cancer
b. estimating the extent of a bun
c. estimating how serious a cancer is
d. preventing acne
b. estimating the extent of a bun