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110 Cards in this Set

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What is the meaning of visceral?
Visceral means pertaining to any larger interior organs in the great body cavities.
What is regurgitation?
Regurgitation is a backward flowing.
What is the meaning of inspiratory?
Inspiratory is the inspiration of air to lungs.
What is atrophy?
Atrophy is a decrease in size of a normally developed organ.
What is the meaning of synaptic?
Synaptic pertains to the junction between processes of two neurons.
What are combining forms for joint?
Arthro and articulo are combining forms for joint.
What is fascia?
Fascia is a muscle covering.
What is the common name for the radius and ulna?
The radius and the ulna are the forearm bones.
What is the common name for carpus?
Carpus are the wrist bones.
What is the common name for metacarpus?
Metacarpus are the hand bones.
What is the common name for the coccyx?
The coccyx is the tailbone.
What is the common name for the femur?
The common name for the femur is the thighbone.
What is the common name for the tibia?
The tibia is the shinbone.
What is the common name for the tarsus?
The tarsus are the ankle bones.
What is the common name for the metatarsus?
The metatarsus are the foot bones.
What are phalanges?
Phalanges are the bones of fingers and toes.
What are the 3 types of muscle tissues?
The 3 types of muscle tissues are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth.
What controls the amount of movement of muscles?
The central nervous system controls the amount of movement of muscles.
What is the appearance of skeletal muscle?
Skeletal muscle has cross-section striations.
What is the purpose of ligaments?
Ligaments support and stabilize.
What are the 2 main regions of a muscle?
The 2 main regions of a muscle are the belly and the tendon.
What is the purpose of a tendon?
The purpose of a tendon is to attach muscles to muscles or muscles to bone.
Where is smooth muscle found?
Smooth muscle is found in internal or visceral organs.
What is the difference between the origin and insertion of a muscle?
The origin has stability with a limited amount of movement, while the insertion has greater movement.
What are aponeuroses?
Aponeuroses are muscle to muscle joining areas.
What is a common aponeuroses?
A common aponeuroses is the linea alba.
Why is the belly of the muscle the best site to give an injection?
The belly is the thickest region of the muscle with the majority of the blood supply creation good distribution.
Which 2 muscle types have involuntary actions?
The cardiac and smooth muscles have involuntary actions.
In which type of muscle do the cells contract individually?
In cardiac muscle the cells contract individually when stimulated.
What 3 types of muscle actions must work together for one movement to occur?
The prime mover, antagonist, and synergist must all work together to create one movement.
What are the 4 muscle movements?
The 4 muscle movements are flexor, extensor, adductor, and abductor.
What are the 3 types of muscle actions?
The prime mover, the antagonist, and the synergist.
What is the purpose of the flexor action?
The flexor action decreases the angle of a joint.
What is the purpose of the extensor action?
The extensor action increases the angle of a joint.
What is the prime mover?
The prime mover is the muscle that is directly producing the desired movement.
What is the antagonist?
The antagonist is the muscle that directly opposes the prime mover.
What is the synergist?
The synergist is the muscle that aids in action of the prime mover.
What are 6 types of naming conventions for muscles?
Muscles are named according to action, shape, location, direction of fibers, number of heads, and attachment sites.
How are attachment sites used to name muscles?
Attachment sites combine the origin and insertion of a muscle to create a name.
What are 6 main regions for muscles in animals?
Animals have muscle regions in the cutaneous, head and neck, abdominal, thoracic limbs, pelvic limbs, and respiration areas.
What is the most common neurotransmitter?
The most common neurotransmitter is acetyl choline.
What is the purpose of muscles in the head and neck region?
Muscles in the head and neck region are responsible for chewing, movement of sensory organs, facial expressions, extension and flexion of head.
What is the purpose of muscles in the abdominal region?
The purpose of muscles in the abdominal region are for respiration, to provide strength for lifting or bending, and for back support.
What common ailments can affect the muscles in the abdominal region?
Vomiting, diarrhea, and coughing can all affect the muscles in the abdominal region.
What is the purpose of the muscles in the thoracic limbs?
The purpose of the muscles in the thoracic limbs are to provide movement.
What is the purpose of the muscles in the pelvic limb region?
The purpose of muscles in the pelvic limb region are to provide locomotion and propulsion as well as a driving force of movement.
What is the main job of muscles used for respiration?
The main job of muscles used for respiration are to increase and decrease the size of thoracic cavity.
What muscle is the primary mover for inspiratory action?
The primary mover for inspiration is the diaphragm.
What is the primary mover for expiratory action?
The primary mover for expiration is the intercostal muscle group.
What is a brief description of the muscle contraction process?
Muscle contraction begins with stimuli being perceived by a nerve, when then travels down axon to synaptic space, then the impulse generates production of acetylcholine which floods the synaptic space, the impulse then triggers a release of stored calcium onto muscle fibers causing them to contract or extend.
What 3 major muscles are in the pelvic limb region?
The 3 major muscles of the pelvic limb are the gluteal, quadriceps femoris, and the gastrocnemius.
What is the purpose of the gluteal muscle?
The gluteal muscle moves the hip.
What is the origin and insertion of the gluteal muscle?
The origin of the gluteal muscle is the ilium and the insertion is the femur.
What is the purpose of the quadriceps femoris?
The quadriceps femoris extends the knee.
What is the origin and insertion of the quadriceps femoris?
The origin of the quadriceps femoris is the femur and the insertion is the tibial tuberosity.
What is the purpose of the gastrocnemius?
The gastrocnemius extends the tarsus.
What is the origin and insertion of the gastrocnemius?
The origin of the gastrocnemius is the tibia and fibula, and the insertion is the calcaneous.
What are the 3 main muscles composing the hamstring group?
Muscles in the hamstring group include the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus.
What is the purpose of the biceps femoris?
The biceps femoris flexes knee and extends the hip.
What is the origin and insertion of the biceps femoris?
The origin of the biceps femoris is the ischium and the insertion is the fibula.
What is the purpose of the semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles?
The semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles flex the knee.
What is the origin and insertion of the semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles?
The insertion of the semibranosus and semitendinosus muscles is the ischium and the insertion is the tibia.
What major muscle is located in the thoracic limb?
The major muscle in the thoracic limb is the triceps brachii.
What is the purpose of the triceps brachii?
The purpose of the triceps brachii is to extend the forearm.
What is the origin and insertion of the triceps brachii?
The origin of the triceps brachii is the humerus and the insertion is the olecranon of ulna.
What is the purpose of the trapezius muscle?
The trapezius muscle extends the head and provides movement of scapula.
Where are injections most commonly administered in ruminants?
Injections are most commonly done on ruminants in the trapezius muscle.
What is the origin and insertion of the trapezius muscle?
The origin of the trapezius muscle is the occipital bones and thoracic vertebra and the insertion is the scapula.
What is the purpose of the pectoral muscles?
The pectoral muscles adduct and flex forearm.
What is the origin and insertion of the pectoral muscles?
The origin of the pectoral muscles is the sternum and the insertion is the humerus.
What muscles are used to administer heartworm treatment?
The epaxial muscles are used for heartworm treatment.
Where are the epaxial muscles located?
The epaxial muscles are located in the lumbar area along either side of the vertebrae.
What is the purpose of the epaxial muscles?
The purpose of the epaxial muscles is to flex spine.
What is the purpose of the masseter muscles?
The masseter muscles close the jaws.
Where are the masseter muscles located?
The masseter muscles are found on the lateral aspect of the mandible.
What is the purpose of the diaphragm muscle?
The purpose of the diaphragm is to act as the primary mover for inspiration.
Where is the diaphragm located?
The diaphragm is located between the abdominal and thoracic cavities.
What is avulsion?
Avulsion is the tearing away of a structure or part.
What is the cause of a decubital ulcer?
Decubital ulcers are caused by local interference with circulation.
What is a fistula?
A fistula is any abnormal tube-like passage within body tissue.
What is labitvage?
Lavage is a process of washing out or irrigating.
What are some common external causes for muscle pathologies?
Muscle pathologies can be caused by snakebite, gunshot, bite wounds, decubital ulcers, tendonitis, sprains, strains, lacerations, degloving, and chronic wounds.
What are the odds that tissue sloughing will occur with a snakebite?
There is a 95% chance that tissue will slough with a snakebite.
What are the 2 causes of necrosis of tissues with a snakebite?
Venom and bacteria causes necrosis of the tissues.
What is the most important initial goal in treating snakebite?
The most important action to take in treating snakebite is to keep animal quiet and calm.
How should a snakebite be treated?
Snakebites are treated by lavaging and cleaning wound, administering antibiotics, treating as highly infected wound, close monitoring, and managing as open wound.
What is the first step in managing a gunshot wound?
The first step in managing a gunshot wound is to stabilize patient.
Why must animals always be given an antibiotic when being treated for a gunshot wound?
Animals must be administed antibiotics when being treated for a gunshot wound due to the contamination.
After a gunshot patient has been stabilized, what is the next step?
The next step in treating a gunshot wound is to take x-rays to ensure that bone has not be compromised.
How much PSI can a bite wound exert?
A bite can have 450 PSI.
Why shouldn't hydrogen peroxide be used in wounds over 6 hours old?
Hydrogen peroxide impedes the growth of new cells in wounds of 6 hours old.
What is the most critical condition in a bite wound?
The avulsion caused in a bite wound creates pockets which lead to edema, abscess, and infection.
What are the 2 main reasons for cast and bandange sores?
Cast and bandage sores most commonly result from inadequate or loose packing.
What is the treatment for injection related sloughing?
Corticosteroids can be administered to combat the injection reaction or diuretics can be given to reduce excessive inflammation.
What is the cause of injection related sloughing?
Injection related sloughing can occur when drugs are administered in an area not capable of good absorption or given in an area with inadequate blood supply.
What is the usual cause for chronic wounds?
The usual cause for chronic wounds is debris.
What is the cause of sinus tracts?
Sinus tracts are caused by foreign bodies being deep in tissues, resulting in the body creating openings to rid itself of the debris.
How are fistulas created?
Fistulas are created from wounds healing from the outside in.
What is an iatrogenic issue?
An iatrogenic issue is one that is caused by the veterinary treatment team.
What is the most common degloving injury?
The most common degloving injury occurs from a tail shut in a door.
What usually causes tendonitis?
Tendonitis is usually caused by a tear or injury, most commonly from an overextension of muscles.
What is the treatment for tendonitis?
The treatment for tendonitis is rest and anti-inflammatories.
What is the cause for a sprain?
A sprain results from a tendon tear or joint swelling.
What is a strain?
A strain is a pulled muscle, usually occuring during expansion of a muscle beyond normal capacity.
What are clostridial diseases that cause disease in the muscle system?
Clostridial diseases affecting the muscle system include tetanus, botulism, gangrene, black leg, necrotic hepatitis, big head, and overeating disease.
What is the laymen's term for tetanus?
Tetanus is also called lockjaw.
How does tetanus affect an animal?
The bacteria creates a neurotoxin that affects jaw function and extension of the head.
How does botulism affect an animal?
Botulism produces a neurotoxin that causes respiratory paralysis.
Which clostridial disease results after infestation of the liver by parasitic liver flukes?
Necrotic hepatitis is seen in sheep after being infested by with liver flukes.
What is the cause of the overeating disease?
The cause of the overeating disease is a diet high in carbohydrates which creates an excessive growth of bacteria.