Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/33

Click to flip

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
URINARY SYSTE STRUCTURE
KIDNEYS, URETERS, URETHRA, URINARY BLADDER
URINARY SYSTEM FUNCTIONS
*REMOVE WASTE FROM BLOOD
*MAINTAIN pH, & ION BALANCE
*FORM, TRANSPORT, COLLECT, & ELIMINATE URINE
KIDNEYS LOCATION
*BETWEEN THE 12TH THORACIC & 3RD LUMBAR
*LEFT KIDNEY SLIGHTLY HIGHER
*BEHIND PARIETAL PERITONEUM OF ABDONMINAL CAVITY
KIDNEYS FUNCTIONS
*REGULATE VOLUME & COMPOSITION OF BODY FLUIDS
*CONTROL pH OF BODY FLUIDS
*CONTROL RATE OF BLOOD CELL FORMATION-HORMONE ERYTHROPOIEN
*REGULATE BLOOD PRESSURE-ENZYME RENIN
*REGULATE ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM IONS BY ACTIVATING VITAMIN D
KIDNEYS STRUCTURE
*HILUM
->RENAL PELVIS
*2MAJOR REGIONS:
->RENAL CORTEX
->RENAL MEDULLA
HILUM
*LOCATED ON CONCAVE SURFACE OF KIDNEY.
*WHERE BLOOD VESSELS, LYMPHATIC VESSELS, NERVES & URETERS PASS
RENAL PELVIS
WHERE URETERS & KIDNEYS MEET, CAN BE SUBDIVIDED INTO MAJOR & MINOR CALYCES
RENAL CORTEX
*MAJOR REGION OF KIDNEY*
*OUTER SHELL AROUND MEDULLA, ENTERS MEDULLA FORMING THE RENAL COLUMNS THAT SUBDIVIDE MEDULLA INTO RENAL PYRAMIDS
*SURRONDED BY RENAL CAPSULE: FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSURE
RENAL MEDULLA
*MAJOR REGION OF KIDNEY*
*SUBDIVIDED INTO RENAL PYRMIDS-CONE SHAPED REGIONS OF TISSUES
*CONTAINS MANY TUBULES
RENAL ARTERIES
*SUPPLY BLOOD TO KIDNEYS
*BRANCHING STRUCTURE
->BRANCHES INTO INTERLOBAR ARTERIES-BETWEEN RENAL PYRAMIDS
->INTERLOBAR ARTERIES FORM ARCUATE ARTERIES @ CORTEX, CURVE AROUND BASE OF PYRAMIDS
->ARCUATE ARTERIES GIVE RISE TO INTERLOBULAR ARTERIES
->INTERLOBULAR ARTERIES GIVE RISE TO AFFERENT ARTERIOLES WHICH LEAD TO NEPHRONS
*ENTER THROUGH HILUM
*ARISE FROM THE ABDOMINAL AORTA
RENAL VEIN
*BLOOD RETURNING FOLLOWS PATH: INTERLOBULAR TO ARCUATE, TO INTERLOBAR TO RENAL VEIN
*BRINGS BLOOD FROM KIDNEYS
*ENTERS INFERIOR VENA CAVA
NEPHRON FUNCTION
CONTROL COMPOSITION OF BODY FLUIDS & REMOVE WASTE FROM BLOOD
NEPHRON STRUCTURE
MAKE UP OF RENAL CORPUSCLE & RENAL TUBULE
RENAL CORPUSCLE
*GLOMERULUS
*GLOMERULAR CAPSULE (BOWMAN'S CAPSULE)
GLOMERULUS
*MIX OF BLOOD CAPILLARIES
*LEADING FROM AFFERENT ARTERIOLES, BLOOD EXITS THROUGH EFFERENT ARTERIOLES
->AFFERENT ARTERIOLE HAS MUCH LARGER DIAMETER THAN CAPILLARIES OR EFFERENT ARTERIOLE
->>PROVIDES HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE (HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE) INSIDE GLOMERULUS
GLOMERULAR CAPSULE (BOWMAN'S CAPSULE)
*THIN, SAC-LIKE STRUCTURE THAT SURRONDS GLOMERULUS
*2 LAYERS
->VISCERAL LAYER-COVERS GLOMERULUS
->PARIETAL LAYERS-CONTINUOUS W/RENAL TUBULE
RENAL TUBULE
*LEADS FROM CAPSULE
*COILED
*RECEIVES FLUID FILTERED @ THE GLOMERULUS
*BLOOD SUPPLIED BY PERITUBULAR CAPILLARY SYSTEM
->LOW PRESSURE
->FORMS VASA RECTA @ NEPHRON LOOP
PATHWAY OF BLOOD THROUGH THE BLOOD VESSELS OF THE KIDNEY & NEPHRON
*RENAL ARTERY
*INTERLOBAR ARTERY
*ARCUATE ARTERY
*INTERLOBULAR ARTERY
*AFFERENT ARTERIOLE
*GLOMERULAR CAPILLARY
*EFFERENT ARTERIOLE
*VASA RECTA & PERITUBULAR CAPILLARY
*INTERLOBULAR VEIN
*ARCUATE VEIN
*INTERLOBAR VEIN
*RENAL VEIN
RENAL TUBULE
*PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE
->LONG, COILED TUBE
*NEPHRON LOOP(LOOP OF HENLE)
->DESCENDING & ASCENDING LIMB
*DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE
->SHORTHER THAN PROXIMAL
->PASSES NEAR GLOMERULUS @ JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS
->IMPORTANT IN SECRETING RENIN
*EMPTIES INTO COLLECTION DUCTS
TYPES OF NEPHRONS
*CORTICAL NEPHRONS
->80% OF NEPHRONS
->SHORT NEPHRON LOOPS
->LOCATED IN RENAL CORTEX
*JAUXTAMEDULLARY NEPHRONS
->NEPHRON LOOPS EXTEND DEEP INTO RENAL MEDULLA
->REGULATE WATER BALANCE
URETERS
*LEAVES KIDNEY @ RENAL PELVIS
*EXTEND DOWNWARD POSTERIOR TO THE PARIETAL PERITONEUM
*IN PELVIC CAVITY, JOIN URINARY BLADDER
->FLAP LIKE FOLD OF MUCOUS MEMBRANE ACTS AS VALVE ALLOWING ONE WAY FLOW OF URINE INTO BLADDER
*WALL OF URETER
->MUCOUS COAT
->MUSCULAR COAT-PROPEL URINE
->FIBROUS COAT
URINARY BLADDER LOCTION
*PELVIC CAVITY
**MALES: LIES AGAINST RECTUM
**FEMALES: ANTERIOR TO UTERUS AND VAGINA
URINARY BLADDER STRUCTURE
*WALLS HAVE 4 LAYERS
->MUCOUS COAT: TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM
->SUBMUCOUS COAT: CONNECTIVE TISSUE(HIGH ELASTIC CONTENT)
->MUSCULAR COAT: SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUE FORMS DETRUSOR MUSCLE
->OUTER COAT: UPPER SURFACE=PARIETAL PERITONEUM(SEROUS COAT), LOWERS SURFACE=FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE
URINARY BLADDER FUNCTION
*RECEIVE, STORE, RELEASE URINE
->URINE ENTERS FROM URETERS & LEAVES THROUGH NECK LEADING TO URETHRA
URETHRA STRUCTURE
WALL LINED W/MUCOUS MEMBRANE, SMOOTH MUSCLE FIBERS, MUCOUS GLANDS
URETHRA FUNCTION
TUBE CARRIES URINE FROM URINARY BLADDER TO OUTSIDE OF BODY
URETHRA LOCATION
*FEMALE: BLADDER-BELOW SYMPHYSIS PUBIS, EMPTIES BETWEEN LABIA MINORA
*MALE: PASSES THROUGH PROSTRATE & PENIS
->FUNCTIONS AS URINARY CANAL & PASSAGEWAY FOR SPERM
URINE FORMATION
*URINE:PRODUCED BY NEPHRONS
^CONTAINS WASTES & EXCESS WATER & ELECTROLYTES
*3 STEPS:
^GLOMERULAR FILTRATION
^TUBULAR REABSORPTION
^TUBULAR SECRETION
GLOMERULAR FILTRATION
FILTRATION OF BLOOD PLASMA BY GLOMERULAR CAPILLARIES
^PRODUCES LOTS OF FLUID(180L/24HRS)
TUBULAR REABSORPTION
REABSORBS MUCH OF WATER, ELECTROLYTES, & GLUCOSE LEAVING WASTES
TUBULAR SECRETION
SUBSTANCES SECRETED INTO RENAL TUBULE FROM CAPILLARIES FOR EXCRETION INTO URINE
^END UP IN HIGHER CONCENTRATIONS THAN FROM FILTRATION ALONE
^WASTE PRODUCTS LIKE HYDROGEN IONS & TOXINS
GLOMERULAR FILTRATE
*CONSISTS OF MAINLY WATER, SMALL DISSOLVED MATERIALS, IONS
*FILTRATE PASSES THROUGH THE FENESTRAE(SMALL OPENINGS) OF THE GLOMERULAR CAPILLARIES ENDOTHELIUM TO ENTER GLOMERULAR CAPSULE
*COMPOSITION IS MOSTLY WATER & SAME SOLUTES AS BLOOD PLASMA
^FEW LARGER PROTEINS
^^WATER, GLUCOSE, AMINO ACIDS, UREA, URIC ACID, CREATINE, CREATININE, SODIUM, CHLORIDE, POTASSIUM, CALCIUM, BICARBONATE, PHOSPHATE & SULFATE
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

*glomerular filtration*
FORCES PRODUCTS THROUGH CAPILLARY WALLS