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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
___ studies the struture of body parts and their relationships to one another.
Anatomy
___ concerns the function of the body-how the body parts work and carry out their life sustaining activities
Physiology
___ or ___ anatomy is the study of the body's structures visible to the naked eye
Gross, macroscopic
In ___ anatomy, all the structures in a particular region of the body are examined at the same time.
regional
In __ anatomy, the body struture is studied system by system
systemic
___ antomy is the study of structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface.
surface
___ anatomy deals with structures that cannot be seen by the naked eye.
microscopic
___ studies the cells of the body, while ___ studies the tissues.
cytology, histology
___ anatomy studies structural changes that occur in the body through its life span.
Developmental
___ studies the develomental changes that occue before birth.
Embryology
___ anatomy studies structural changes caused by disease.
Pathological
In ___ ___, the structure of biological molecules is investigated
molecular biology
The principal of complementarity of structure and function is defined as"
what a structure can do depends on it's specific form
The simplest level of the structural hierarchy is the ___ level.
chemical
___ are the smallest units of living things
cells
Directly above the chemical level of the structural hierarchy is the __ level.
cellular
Above the cellular level lies the ___ level
tissue
___ are groups of similar cells that have a common function
tissues
___ tissue covers the body surface lines it's cavities
epithelium
An ___ is a discrete structure composed of at least 2 tissue types that performs a specific function within the body.
organ
The ___ level lies above the tissue level in the hierarchy.
organ
The level above the organ is known as the ___ ___
organ system
Organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose make up an ___ ___
organ system.
There are __ organ systems in the body.
11
Name all the organ systems in the body.
1. integumentary 2. skeletal 3. muscular 4. lymphatic 5. respiratory 6. digestive 7. nervous 8. endocrine 9. cardiovascular 10. urinary 11. reproductive

anagram=Curler Minds
___ is a broad term that describes all the chemical reactions that occur within bdy cells
metabolism
Breaking down substances into their simpler building blocks is called ___
catabolism
Synthesizing more complex structures from simpler substances is called ____
anabolism
Synthesizing more complex structures from simpler substances using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP is called ___ ____
cellular respiration
___ is the process of removing wastes from the body.
excretion
What gas is a byproduct of cellular respiration?
carbon-dioxide
Reproduction can occur at what two levels?
cellular or organismal
___ is an increase in size of a body part or the organism
growth
For true growth to occur, ___ activities must occur at a faster rate than ___ activites.
constructive, destructive
Survival needs include what 5 things?
nutrients, oxygen, water, appropriate temp and atmospheric pressure.
Approximately __% of the air we breathe is oxygen.
20%
___ is described as the ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions while the outside world changes continuously.
homeostasis
Describe the chain of the homeostatic control mechanism.
receptor (detects stimuli)--> afferent pathway--> control center (determines set point, decides course of action)--> efferent pathway-->effector (output)-->either depresses stimulus(negative feedback) or enhances it (positive feedback)
Most homeostatic control mechanisms are ___ ___ mechanisms
negative feedback
In negative feedback systems, the output ___ ___ the original stimulus or ___ its intensity
shuts off, reduces
Our internal thermostats is located in which organ?
hypothalamus
A rising level of ADH in the bloodstream triggers what?
prompts the kidneys to absorb more water and return it to the bloodstream
In __ __ systems, the result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the activity is accelerated.
positive feedback
Positive feedback systems usually control ___ events that do not require continous adjustments.
infrequent
Give two examples of homeostatic mechanisms using positive feedback.
labor contractions and blood clotting.
___ causes labor contractions to become both more frequent and more powerful.
oxytocin
____ is to head and trunk, as ____ is to legs and arms
axial, appendicular
Define superior
toward the head end or upper part of a structure or body.
Define inferior
away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or body.
Define ventral (anterior)
toward or at the front of the body; in front of
Define dorsal (posterior)
Toward or at the back of the body; behind
Define medial
Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of.
Define intermediate
between a more medial and lateral structure
Define proximal
closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Define distal
farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Superficial (external)
Toward or at the body surface
Deep (internal)
away from the body surface; more internal
Regional Terms

Acromial
point of shoulder
Regional Terms

Axillary
armpit
Regional Terms

Antecubital
front of elbow
Regional Terms

Antebrachial
forearm
Regional Terms

Pollex
thumb
Regional Terms

Palmer
palm
Regional Terms

Crural
leg
Regional Terms

Tarsal
ankle
Regional Terms

Frontal
forehead
Regional Terms

Mental
chin
Regional Terms

Coxal
hip
Regional Terms

Fibular or peroneal
side of leg
Regional Terms

hallux
Great toe
Regional Terms

Manus
hand
Regional Terms

Olecranal
back of elbow
Regional Terms

Popliteal
back of knee
Regional Terms

Sural
calf
Body Planes

Sagittal
vertical plane that divies the body into left and right halves
Regional Terms

Median plane (midsaggital)
sagittal plane that lies directly on midline
Regional Terms

parasagittal
sagittal plane offest from midline
Regional Terms

Frontal plane (coronal)
vertical planes that divide body into anterior and posterior
Regional Terms

Transverse (horozontal)
horizontal plane from right to left dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
Regional Terms

A transverse section is also called a
cross section
Regional Terms

Oblique
cuts made diagonally between the horizontal and vertical planes
The dorsal body cavity is divided into what two body cavities?
cranial and spinal
The two main subdivisions of the ventral body cavity are the __ and __
thoracic and abdominopelvic
The thoracic cavity is further subdivided into ___ and ___
lateral plueral cavities and the mediastinum
The mediastinum contains the ___ cavity, which contains the heart
pericardial
Name the 3 organs housed in the abdominal cavity.
stomach, intestines, spleen, liver
The walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surface of the organs it contains are covered by the ___ membrane.
serous (serosa)
The part of the membrane covering the cavity walls in the ventral body cavity is called the ____ ____
parietal serosa
The parietal serosa folds in on itself to form the ___ serosa, covering the organs in the ventral body cavity
visceral.
The potential space between serous membranes is filled by ___ ___.
serous fluid
Name the regions of the abdonimopelvic cavity starting at 12:00 when looking at a person in the anatomical position
Epigastric, left hypochondriac, l lumbar, l iliac, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac, r lumbar, r hypochondriac, umbilical (middle), also, LUQ, LLQ, RLQ, RUQ