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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Active Transport
require the expenditure of metabolic energy by the cell
Concentrated Gradient
is simply a measurable difference in concentration from one area to another. Because molecules spread from the area of high concentration to the area of low concentration, they spread down the concentration gradient.
refers to a natural phenomenon caused by the tendency of small particles to spread out evenly within any given space
the plasma membrane “traps” some extracellular material and brings it into the cell
Enzymes are chemical catalysts that reduce the activation energy needed for a reaction;

Enzymes regulate cell metabolis
What is Meiosis
is the type of cell division that occurs only in primitive sex cells during the process of becoming mature sex cells
metabolism: the chemical reactions that occur in the body. Cell metabolism, then, refers to the chemical reactions of the cell
the process of organizing and distributing nuclear DNA during cell division, is a continuous process consisting of four distinct phases:Prophase, Metaphase,Anaphase,Telophase
is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
is movement of molecules through a membrane from an area of high hydrostatic pressure to an area of low hydrostatic pressure—that is, down a hydrostatic pressure gradient
Cells placed in solutions that are hypertonic to intracellular fluid always shrivel. to decrease the size of the red blood cell.
to increase the size of the red blood cell and thus enable it to carry more oxygen.
because this solution does not change the size of the red blood cell
Splitting of the plasma membrane and cytoplasm into two is called
compare & contrast the different passive processes that transport substances across a cell membrane
simple diffusion is trasfor from high concntrtion to a lower concntration outside the cell.Osmosis is diffusion in & out of cell. channel or carrier mediated transport diffuse thrgh a membrane w/ channel or carrier structures
Identify what causes osmotic pressure to develop in a cell
Water pressure that develops in a solution as a result of osmosis into that solution.
describe different active processes that transport substance across a cell membrane

3 more cards
The driving force for active transport processes, on the other hand, comes from the cell itself. Energy of metabolism must be used by cells to force particles across a membrane that otherwise would not move across
different active processes
Movement of solute particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration (up the concentration gradient) by means of an energy-consuming PUMP structure in the membrane
different active processes
Phagocytosis (endocytosis)
Movement of cells or other large particles into cell by trapping it in a section of plasma membrane that pinches off to form an intracellular vesicle; a type of vesicle-mediated transport
different active processes

Movement of fluid and dissolved molecules into a cell by trapping them in a section of plasma membrane that pinches off to form an intracellular vesicle; a type of vesicle-mediated transport
different active processes

Movement of proteins or other cell products out of the cell by fusing a secretory vesicle with the plasma membrane; a type of vesicle-mediated transport
What distinguishes active processes from passive processes

2 cards 1
Passive processes do not require any energy expenditure or “activity” of the cell membrane—the particles move by using energy that they already have.
What distinguishes active processes from passive processes

Active processes, on the other hand, do require the expenditure of metabolic energy by the cell. In active processes the transported particles are actively “pulled” across the membrane.
Describe the structure of an enzyme.

structural attribute of enzymes is the active site. The active site is the portion of the enzyme molecule that chemically “fits” the substrate molecule or molecules
How does its structure determine its function?
the active site of an enzyme chemically fits a portion of the substrate just as a key fits into a lock. Like a key in a lock, the enzyme can bind substrates together (“locking” them together) or can unbind components of a substrate (“unlocking” them).
structure function
And, as with a key, some movement of the enzyme shape is often required to “open the lock” or alter the substrate
What is an allosteric effector? Give example

An “effector” is an agent that accomplishes something, and allosteric literally means “pertaining to a change in three-dimensional shape. certain antibiotic drugs, changes in pH, or changes in temperature
What are the three catabolic pathways that together make up the process of cellular respiration?
1 of 4

Citric acid cycle

Electron transport system

2 of 4
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Citric acid cycle

3 of 4
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Electron transport system

4 of 4
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Enzymes are chemical catalysts
Enzymes regulate cell metabolism, The chemical structure of enzymes. Proteins of a complex shape. The active site is where the enzyme molecule fits the substrate molecule—the lock-and-key model