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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
acid
a substance that liberates hydrogen ions when in an aqueous solution.
Also known as: proton donors
adenosine triphospate (ATP)
the compound that is the important intracellular energy source; cellular energy
atom
the smallest part of an element; indivisible by ordinary chemical means
atomic symbol
a one- or two-letter symbol indicating a particular element
base
a substance that accepts hydrogen ions; propton acceptor
carbohydrate
organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes starches, sugars, cellulose.
chemical reaction
process in which molecules are formed, changed, or broken down
compound
substance composed of two or more different elements, the atoms of which are chemically united
covalent bond
a bond involving the sharing of electrons between atoms
decomposition reaction
a destructive chemical reaction in which complex substances are broken down into simpler ones
electrolyte
a substance that breaks down into ions when in solution and is capable of conducting an electric current
element
any of the building blocks of matter; oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, etc.
energy
the ability to do work
enzyme
a substance formed by living cells that acts as a catalyst in bodily chemical reactions
exchange reaction
a chemical reaction in which bonds are both made and broken; atoms become combined with different atoms
hydrogen bond
weak bond in which a hydrogen atom forms a bridge between two electron-hungry atoms. An important intramolecular bond.
inorganic compound
a compound that lacks carbon (for example, water)
ionic bond
bond formed by the complete transfer of electron(s) from one atom to another (or others). The resulting charged atoms, or ions, are oppositely charged and attract each other
isotope
different atomic form of the same element. Isotopes vary only in the number of neutrons they contain.
lipid
organic compound formed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; examples are fats and cholesterol
matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
molecule
particle consisting of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
neutron
uncharged subatomic particle; found in the atomic nucleus
nucleic acid
class of organic molecules that includes DNA and RNA
organic compound
a compound containing carbon; examples include proteins, carbohydrates, and fats
pH
the symbol for hydrogen ion concentration; a measure of the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
protein
a complex nitrogenous substance; the main building material of cells
proton
subatomic particle that bears a positive charge; located in the atomic nucleus
radioactivity
the process of spontaneous decay seen in some of the heavier isotopes, during which particles or energy is emitted from the atomic nucleus; results in the atom becoming more stable
radioisotope
isotope that exhibits radioactive behavior
salt
ionic compound that dissociates into charged particles (other than hydrogen or hydroxyl ions) when dissolved in water
synthesis reaction
chemical reaction in which larger molecules are formed from simpler ones.
valence shell
the outermost energy level of an atom that contains electrons; the electrons in the valence shell determine the bonding behavior of the atom
basal metabolic rate
the rate at which energy is expended (heat produced) by the body per unit time under controlled (basal) conditions: 12 hours after a meal, at rest.
metabolism
the sum total of the chemical reactions that occur in the body
nutrient
a substance in food that is used by the body to promote normal growth, maintenance, and repair
essential nutrient
water?
calorie
unit of heat; the large calorie is the amount of heat required to raise 1 kg of water 1 degree celsius; also used in metabolic and nutrition studies as the unit to measure the energy value of foods
mineral
inorganic chemcial compound found in nature; salts
vitamin
organic compound required by the body in minute amounts for physiological maintenance and growth
catabolism
the process in which living cells break down subtstances into simpler substances; desctructive metabolism
anabolism
the energy-requiring building phase of metabolism in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex substances
glucose
the principal sugar in the blood; a monosaccharide
lipoprotein
lipoid and protein-based substances that transport fatty acids and cholesterol in the bloodstream; major varieties are high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)