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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Esophagus
posterior and adjacent to trachea
Movement of air thru Respiratory System
vertically and transversely
Pleural Linings (2)
Visceral - Houses lungs
Parietal - lining of thoracic cavity
Phrenic nerves
Contracts the diaphragm
Anterior Thoracic Muscle
Accessory muscles of Inspiration:
External intercostals
Origin, Insertion, Function of External Intercostals
Accessory muscle of inspiration
Origin: lower parts of ribs 1-11
Insertion: upper parts of next rib
Function: elevates rib cage
Posterior Thoracic Muscles
Accessory muscle of inspiration
Levator costarum (longis and brevis)
Origin, Insertion, Function of Levator Costarum Longis
Origin: Transverse process of T7 to T10
Insertion: T7 to T9
Function: elevates rib cage
Origin, Insertion, Function of Levator Costarum Brevis
Origin: Transverse process of C7 to T11
Insertion: T7 to T8
Function: Elevate the rib cage
Serratus posterior superior
Accessory muscle of inspiration
Origin, Insertion, Function of Serratus Posterior superior
Origin: C7 to T3
Insertion: Ribs 2-5
Function: Elevates the rib cage
Accessory muscles of the neck used in inspiration
Sternocleidomastoid
Scalenus (anterior, middle, posterior)
Origin, Insertion, Function of Sternocleidomastoid
Origin: Mastoid process
Insertion: Sternum & clavicle
Function: elevates the clavicle
Origin, Insertion, Function of Scalenus (anterior, middle, posterior)
Origin: C3-C7
Insertion: 1st 2 ribs
Function: Elevates rib 1
Muscles of upper arm & shoulder used in inspiration
Pectoralis Major
Pectoralis Minor
Trapezius
Origin, Insertion, Function of Pectoralis Major
Origin: Sternum & Clavicle
Insertion: humerus
Function: Elevates sternum
Origin, Insertion, Function of Pectoralis Minor
Origin: Anterior parts of ribs 2-5
Insertion: scapula
Function: increases ribs transversely
Muscles of Forced Expiration (3 sets)
Muscles of anterior thorax
Muscles of abdomen
Muscles of upper limb
Muscles of Anterior Thorax used in forced expiration
Internal Intercostals
Serratus Posterior Inferior
Origin, Insertion, Function of Internal Intercostals
Origin: top part of rib below
Insertion: bottom part of rib above (except for rib 1)
Function: pulls ribs down
Origin, Insertion, Function of Serratus Posterior Inferior
Origin: T11-L3
Insertion: lower 5 ribs
Function; pulls ribs down
Muscles of the Abdomen (5) used in forced expiration
Abdominal Aponeurosis
Transverse Abdominus
Internal Oblique
External Oblique
Rectus Abdominus
Abdominal Aponeurosis
lots of flat tendons in abdominal area
Origin, Insertion, Function of Transverse Abdominus
Origin: vertebral column
Insertion: Abdominal Aponeurosis
Function: compresses abdomen
Origin, Insertion, Function of Interal Oblique
Origin: Ilium
Insertion: lower ribs and abdominal aponeurosis
Function: rotates trunk
Origin, Insertion, Function of External Oblique
Origin: Lower 7 ribs
Insertion:Ilium and Abdominal aponeurosis
Function: rotates trunk
Origin, Insertion, Function of Rectus Abdominus
Origin: pubis
Insertion: xiphoid process
Function: flexion of vertebral column
Muscles of upper limb used in forced expiration
Latissimus Dorsi
Origin, Insertion, Function of Latissimus Dorsi
Origin: T1 to S5
Insertion: humerus
Function: stabilizes posterior abdominal wall
Forces used in expiration
Torque (twisting)
Elasticity (ability of something to return to original state, flexible)
Gravity (helps pull things down)
Volumes and Capacities vs Pressures
Volumes and Capacities relate to quantities
Pressure = force and area
Spirometer
Measures volumes and capacities to establish norms
Manometer
Measures pressure (certain amount of pressure needed to produce speech)
Respiration Cycle
Adults - 12 - 18x/minute (500 ml volume)
Children - 40 - 70x/minute
Approximate adult resp around age 20
Rest vs Activity
20x more air thru system when exercising
Capacities (4)
Vital Capacity
Inspiratory Capacity
Functional Residual Capacity
Total Lunch Capacity
Vital Capacity
total amount of air that can be inspirated after a maximum exhalation
Functional Residual Capacity
Amount of air left in lungs after tidal expriation
Inspiratory Capacity
Amount of air that can be inhaled after tidal expiration
Total lung capacity
All of it, including residual volume
Volumes (4)
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Tidal Volume
Expiratory Reserve Volume
Residual Volume
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Volume of air that can be inhaled after a tidal inspiration
Expiratory Reserve Volume
Volume of air that can be exhaled after a tidal expiration
Residual Volume
air remaining in lungs after a forced expiration (can't be exhaled)
Dead Air Space
air within vocal tract that is NOT used for gas exchange
Framework of Larynx
3 unpaired & 3 paired cartilages
lined with mucous membrane
sits on top of trachea
Cartilages of larynx (6)
Cricoid
Thyroid
Artytenoid
Corniculate
Epiglottis
Cuneiform
Cricoid Cartilage (definition of structure)
smaller in front like a signet ring
most inferior, only one
looks like a fancy tracheal ring
Crocoid structures (anterior, lateral, posterior)
Anterior is smaller, to allow for vocal folds to attach
Lateral side has articular facets where thyroid cartilage attaches
Posterior side has other cartilages called arytenoids
Thyroid cartilage definition
Vocal fold attaches here
Unpaired cartilage
Largest of laryngeal cartilages
Thyroid cartilage structures
2 laminae (flat parts at the sides)
Thyroid angle = where laminae come together in front
Thyroid notch = highest point of the angle
Inferior horns (cornus) = attach at bottom
Superior horns = attach to hyoid bone
Arytenoid cartilage definition
Paired cartilage
Sit on top of posterior cricoid
Arytenoid Cartilage structures
Vocal Process (2) = more on anterior side where vocal folds attach and also on thyroid cartilage in front below notch
Muscular process (2) = on lateral side, where other muscles attach
Corniculate cartilage
on top of artytenoid cartilage
point of articulation with the arytenoid cartilages
Epiglottis cartilage
unpaired
Attaches to the thyroid cartilage anteriorally and inferiorally
Sits right in middle between thyroid and hyoid bone
Epiglottis Structures (5)
Thyroepiglottic ligament = attaches to thyroid cartilage
Glossoepiglottic ligament = tongue to epiglottis (attached superiorally)
Aryepiglottic folds = connects side of arytenoid to epiglottis
Pyraform sinuses = spaces betweeen aryepiglottic folds and thyroid cartilage (lateral)
Valleculae sinuses = space between base of tongue and epiglottic (food gets stuck here)
Cuneiform Cartilage
Embedded w/aryepiglottic folds
provide support for aryepiglottic folds
Hyoid bone
Union between tongue and larynx
Attached to thyroid cartilage by superior horns of thyroid
Only bone in body not connected to another bone
Large anterior called Corpus
Point of attachment for 6 muscles
Movement of cartilages
Cricothryoid joint
Cricoarytenoid joint
Cricothyroid joint
Between Cricoid & thyroid cartilages
In front, when it contracts, pulls them closer together
Stretches vocal folds which raises pitch of voice
Responsible for changes in vocal fold frequency
Cricoarytenoid joint
Between cricoid and arytenoid
Arytenoids make all sorts of movements
Responsible for vocal fold movement
Inner Larynx
Vocal folds = bands of tissue, majority consist of muscle
Muscles
Membranes & Ligaments help to connect structures
Extrinsic Membranes & Ligaments (7)
Thyrohyoid membrane = between thyroid cart and hyoid bone
Lateral thyrohoid ligament = small connection between superior horn and hyoid bone
Medial Thyrohyoid ligament = connects thyoid cartilage notch to hyoid bone
Hyoepiglottic & Thyroepiglottic ligaments = connection b/w epiglottis and hyoid bone
Glossoepiglottic ligaments (lateral and medial)= connects epiglottis and tongue
Cricotracheal membrane = attachment of larynx to trachea
Intrinsic Membranes & Ligaments (inside the larynx)
2 membranes
Quadrangular membrane
= superior to true vocal folds
= travels from true vocal folds to top part of larynx
= includes aryepiglottic folds and false vocal folds
Cornus Elasticus = lines larynx from true vocal folds down (inferior to vocal folds)
Vocal Folds - 5 layers
Superficial = outermost, think, epithelial
3 Lamina Propia
= superficial, intermediate, deep
= superficial (very thin)
= all are very elastic
= deep layer is thicker and not as flexible
Thyrovocalis muscle = bulk of vocal folds
Alternate names of vocal folds
Mucosal lining = combination of 2 superficial layers
Vocal ligament = intermediate and deep lamina propia
Space inside larynx from superior to inferior (8)
Aditus = front door that opens to the larynx
Vestibule = space between aditus and false vocal folds
Aryepiglottic folds = side walls
False vocal folds
Laryngeal ventricle or sinus = space between false and true vocal folds
True vocal folds
Glottis = space in between true vocal folds
Conus Elasticus