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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anatomy
study of the shape and structure of the body
physiology
how the body functions
histology
study of cells and tissues
pathology
study of diseases, not properly functioning body
homeostasis
the body's ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment
receptor
sends signals to control center by nerves
control center
(brain) sends signals to effector organ
effector
(lungs, diaphram)
anatomical position
standing up, arms out to side, palms facing forward (for a human)
superior (cranial)
nearer to the head

ex head is superior to the neck
inferior (caudal)
nearer to the feet

ex feet are inferior to the ankles
anterior (ventral)
nearer to the front (stomach)

ex nose is anterior to your eyes
posterior (dorsal)
nearer to the back (back)
medial
nearer to the middle

ex. neck is more medial than your shoulders
lateral
farther from the middle

ex. thumb more lateral than pinky
negative feedback
when you have a pathway and something send a signal back to the beginning and says 'stop'

-->-->-->-->-->-->-->-->
"stop" <--<--<
positive feedback
amplified signals

-->
--> -->
--> -->
--> -->
-->
intermediate
between a lateral and a medial structure

ex. quads
proximal
nearer to the trunk or point of origin

ex knee is proximal to ankle
distal
farther from trunk

ex hand is distal to elbow
superficial
nearer to or on the surface
deep
farther from the surface

ex muslces deep to skin
acromial
shoulders
antecubital
'elbow pits'
axillary
armpit
brachial
upper arm
buccal
upper cheek
carpal
wrist
cervical
neck(bone)
coxal
hip / tailbone
crural
lower leg (anterior)
digital
fingers and toes (anterior)
femoral
upper leg/thigh (anterior)
fibular
lateral sie legs (anterior)
inguinal
where thigh meets trunk (anterior)
nasal
nose (anterior)
oral
mouth (anterior)
orbital
eyes (anterior)
patellar
knee (anterior)
pelvic
pelvis (anterior)
tarsal
ankle (anterior)
thoracic
chest (anterior)
umbilical
bellybutton (anterior)
cephalic
head (posterior)
deltoid
shoulder (posterior)
gluteal
butt (posterior)
lumbar
lower back curve(posterior)
occipital
back of brain (vision control)(posterior)
popliteal
back of knee(posterior)
sacral
bone in butt(posterior)
scapular
shoulder blade(posterior)
sural
calf(posterior)
vertebral
all spine(posterior)
dorsal
backside
ventral
front side
thoracic
top (ribcage)
in ribcage
heart, lungs, esophagus
abdominopelvic
bottom (stomach, liver)
diaphram
seperates thoracic and adominopelvic border
quadrants
upper right, upper left, lower right, lower left
right hypochondriac region
lung
epigastric region
heart, lungs, liver
left hypochondriac region
lung
right lumbar region
liver , large intestine
umbilical region
stomach, liver, large intestine
left lumbar region
spleen, stomach, large intestine
right iliac region
large/small intestine
hypo-gastric region
rectum, small and large intestines
left iliac region
small and large intestines
integumentary organs
sin
integumentary function
waterproofs the body and cushions and protects deeper tissue from injury. helps regulate body temp.
skeletal organs
cartilages, join, bones
skeletal function
protects and supports body organs and provides framework for mucles , used to cause movement
nervous organs
brain, sensory receptor, spinal cord, nerves
nervous function
controls systems of body, responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands
Endocrine system organs
pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, testis
Endocrine function
glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth , reproduction, ovaries and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells
Muscular system organs
skeletal muscles
muscular system function
allows manipulation of environment, locomotion, and facial expression. maintatins posture, produces heat.
respiratory system organs
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, left lung
respiratory system function
keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide, gaseous exchanges occur through walls of air sacs of lungs
lymphatic system organs
thoracic duct, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessells
lymphatic system function
picks up fluid leaked from blood vesseslls and returns it to bood, disposes of debris in the lymphatic strea,; houses white blood cells in
digestive system organs
oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestinse, rectum, anus
urinary system organs
kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
midsaggital body plane (median)
cuts body in half down the front (one leg one side, one on the other...)

1
1
1
1
1
frontal plane
cuts body in half longways (front legs on one half, back of legs on the other)
transverse plane
cuts body in half horizontally (head in top half, legs in bottom half)

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