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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
life; biochemistry
branch of science dealing with the chemistry of life forms.
compound whose molecules are composed of two saccharide unit bound together
atom that has the same atomic number as another atom but a different atomic weight
group organic compound that includes fats
substance that dissolves in water and releases ions
compound whose molecule consists of a single saccharide unit
molecule that has many double bonds between its carbon atoms
molecular formula
abbreviation for the number of atoms of each element in a compound
cellular organelle enclosed by a double layered porous membrance and containing DNA; the dense core of anatom thatis composed of protons and neutrons
atomic number
number of protons in an atom of an element
atomic weight
number of protons plus the number of neutrons in am atom of an element
nonreactive with other elements
atom or molecule with an electrical charge
connection between atoms in a compound
electron shells
the path formed by an electron or several electrons encircling the nucleus of an atom at a particular energy level
substance entering a chemical reaction
atom carrying a positve charge due to a deficiency of electrons
atom carrying a negative charge due to one or more extra electrons
something produced as a result of a chemical reaction
ionic bonds
chemical bond formed between two ions by transfer of electrons; electrovalent bond
structural formula
representation of the way atoms bond to form a molecule, using symbols for each element and lines to indicate chemical bonds
polar molecule
combination of atoms in which the electrical charge is not distributed symmetrically
hydrogen bond
weak bond between a hydrogen atom and atom of oxygen or nitrogen
process by which substances are united to form a new new type of substances
having power
covalent bond
chemical bond produced when two atoms share electrons
smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element
electron (e-)
extremely small particle with almost no weight; carried a negative electrical charge and is in constant motion around an atomin nucleus
proton (p+)
relatively large atomic particles; carries a postive electrical charge and is found within an atomic nucleus
neutron (nO)
particles with about the same weight as a protom; uncharged and thus electrically neutral; found within an atomic nucleus
the breakdown of molecules into simpler compounds
particle formed by the chemical union of two or more atoms
anything that has weight and occupies space
chemical substance with only one type of atom
substanse composed of two or more chemically bonded elements
bulk elements
basic chemical subustance needed in a large quantity
trace elements
basic chemical substance needed in small quantity
Ultratrace element
basic element substance needed in very small quantity
complex carbohydrate composed of sugar molecules bound together in a particular way
exchange reaction (replacement reaction)
parts of two diferent kinds of molecules trade positions as bond are bond and new bonds are formed.
AB + CD -> AD + CD
reversible reaction
the product or products can change back to the reactant or reactants.

A + B <=> AB
molecules that influence the rates (not the direction) of chemical reaction but are not consumed in the process.
substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+)
substance that release ions that can combine with hydrongen ions
substance formed by the reaction between an acid and a base
pH of 7.5 to 7.8, makes one feel agitated and dizzy can be caused by breathing rapidly att high altitudes, taking too many antacids, high fever, anxiety, or mild to moderate vomiting.
pH 7.0 to 7.3, makes one feel disoriented, fatigues, breathing may become difficult.
substance that can react with strong acid or base to form a weaker acid or base and thus resist a change in pH
compounds have carbon and hydrogen
chemical substances that lack carbon and hydrogen
carbon dioxide
electrolyte balance
condition when the qualities of electrolytes entering the body equal those leaving it
Distinguish between chemistry and biochemistry.
Chemistry is the study of the composition of substances and how they change. Biochemistry is the chemistry of living organisms.
Explain the relationship between elements and atoms.
An element is a basic substance that other things are composed from. Each individual element is made up of tiny, invisible particles called atoms. The atom is the smallest complete unit of an element.
Define compound.
A compound is the product of two or more elements being combined.
List the four most abundant elements in the human body.
The four most abundant elements are hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen.
Describe the major parts of an atom.
Each atom is composed of a central portion, called a nucleus, and one or more electrons that are in constant motion around the nucleus. The nucleus contains one or more large particles called protons, and can also contain one or more similarly-sized particles called neutrons.
Distinguish between protons and neutrons.
Protons carry a single, positive electrical charge (p+). Neutrons are uncharged and thus are electrically neutral (n0).
Define matter.
Matter is anything that has weight and takes up space
Explain why a complete atom is electrically neutral.
The electron carries a single negative electric charge. The protons carry a single positive electric charge.
Neutrons carry no charge, thereby making them electrically neutral. The atom is electrically neutral because there is the exact same number of protons and electrons, which effectively cancel each other out.
Distinguish between atomic number and atomic weight
Atomic number represents the number of protons in an atom of a particular element. Since atoms are electrically neutral, it also tells you the number of electrons. Atomic weight represents the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in an atom of a particular element
Define isotope
Isotopes are elements with the same atomic number but different atomic weights
Define atomic radiation
Atomic radiation is the energy or atomic fragments that are given off by unstable isotopes
Describe how electrons are arranged within atoms
The electrons of an atom are found in one or more shells around the nucleus. The maximum number of
electrons that each of the first three inner shells can hold is as follows:
First shell (closest to the nucleus) 2 electrons
Second shell 8 electrons
Third shell 8 electrons
Explain why some atoms are chemically inert
An atom is chemically inert when the outermost electron shells are filled. These atoms cannot form chemical bonds
Distinguish between an ionic bond and a covalent bond
An ionic bond (electrovalent bond) is formed when atoms gain or lose electrons. A covalent bond forms when atoms share electrons
Distinguish between a single covalent bond and a double covalent bond
A single covalent bond occurs when atoms share one pair of electrons.
A double covalent bond occurs when atoms share two pairs of electrons.
Explain the relationship between molecules and compounds
A molecule is formed when two or more atoms of the same element bond together. A compound is formed when two or more elements of different atoms combine
Distinguish between a molecular formula and a structural formula
A molecular formula consists of the symbols of the elements in the molecule together with numbers to
indicate how many atoms of each element are present. It is essentially the recipe for that particular molecule or compound. A structural formula is drawn to represent how atoms are joined and arranged in various molecules. This is essentially the blueprint of how they fit together
What are the three types of chemical reactions.
synthesis reaction
decomposition reaction
exchange reaction
synthesis reaction
occurs when two or more reactants bond together to make a new and more complex product. It can be symbolized as follows:
A + B = AB
decomposition reaction
occurs when a more
complex substance is broken apart into smaller, simple substances. It can be symbolized as follows:
AB = A + B
exchange reaction
occurs when parts of two molecules change positions. It can be symbolized as follows: AB + CD = AD + CB
Explain what is meant by reversible reaction
A reversible reaction is one in which the end product (or products) of the reaction can changed back to the
reactant (or reactants) that originally underwent the reaction A + B = AB
Explain what pH measures
pH measures the concentration of hydrogen ions found in substances
Distinguish between organic and inorganic substances
An organic substance contains both carbon and hydrogen atoms. An inorganic substance lacks carbon atoms
Describe the roles played by water and by oxygen in the human body
Water is the most abundant substance in the human body. It is a major component of blood and other body fluids. It is an important solvent. It also has an important role in the transportation of chemicals in the body.
Additionally, water can absorb and transport heat. Oxygen is used by cellular organelles in the process of releasing energy from glucose and certain other molecules. The resultant energy is used to drive the cell’s metabolic activities
List several ions that cells require, and describe their general functions
Sodium (Na+), chlorine (Cl-), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca+), magnesium (Mg+2), phosphate (PO4-3), carbonate (CO3-2), bicarbonate (HCO3-), and sulfate (SO4-2) are the ions that play important roles in metabolic processes. These processes include maintenance of proper water concentrations and nerve functions, in body fluids, pH, blood clotting, bone development, energy transfer within cells, and muscle function
Define electrolyte balance
Electrolyte balance is the condition where the electrolytes are present in certain concentrations, both inside and outside cells, to maintain homeostasis
Describe the general characteristics of carbohydrates
Carbohydrates supply much of the energy for the cells. They supply building materials for certain cell
structures and are often stored as reserve energy. These molecules contain atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates usually have twice as many hydrogen as oxygen atoms. The carbon atoms are joined in chains that vary in length with the specific kinds of carbohydrates
Distinguish between simple and complex carbohydrates
Simple carbohydrates are the six-carbon sugars known as simple sugars. Complex carbohydrates are
formed when a number of simple sugar molecules are bound together to form molecules of varying size.
Describe the general characteristics of lipids.
Lipids are organic substances that are insoluble in water but soluble in certain organic solvents. They supply more energy, gram for gram, than carbohydrates. They contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Lipids contain a much smaller proportion of oxygen than carbohydrates
Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats
A saturated fat contains no double bonds between carbon atoms. An unsaturated fat contains one or more double bonds between carbon atoms
Describe the general characteristics of proteins
Proteins can be used as structural materials, energy sources, hormones, and receptors on cell surfaces that are specialized to bond to particular kinds of molecules. Others act as antibodies against foreign substances that can enter the body. Still others act as enzymes in metabolic processes. Proteins contain atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. In addition, they always contain nitrogen atoms, and sometimes contain sulfur atoms as well.
Describe the function of an enzyme
An enzyme is a molecule that acts as a catalyst in living systems. That is, it speeds specific chemical reactions without being consumed or changed in the process.
Explain how protein molecules may become denatured
When protein molecules lose their unique shape and become disorganized, they become denatured. This can be a result of exposure to excessive heat, radiation, electricity, or various chemicals. When they become denatured, it is a permanent change and they are therefore nonfunctional
Describe the general characteristics of nucleic acids
Nucleic acid molecules are generally very large and complex. They contain atoms of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. These are bound into building blocks called nucleotides
Explain the general functions of nucleic acids
These control all cell activities. They store information that is used by cell parts to construct specific kinds of protein molecules, including enzymes