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104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
pelvis & perineum are separated by
pelvic diaphragm
pelvis lies superior to
pelvic diaphragm
perineum lies inferior to
pelvic diaphragm
two main regions of pelvis
false pelvis & true pelvis
false pelvis aka
greater pelvis
false pelvis lies superiorly between
alae (wings) of ilium
true pelvis is _______ shaped
true pelvis aka
lesser pelvis
true pelvis lies inferiorly and
true pelvis is related to which bones?
sacrum, coccyx, & pelvic bones
pelvis contains & supports portions of which systems?
urinary, reproductive, & digestive systems
bladder is located in the ______ portion of the pelvis
rectum is located in the _______ portion of the pelvis
in the female, _______ systems pass through the pelvic diaphragm
urinary (urethra), reproductive (vagina), & digestive (rectum --> anal canal)
order of three systems that pass through pelvic diaphragm in women, anterior to posterior
urinary (urethra), reproductive (vagina), & digestive (rectum --> anal canal)
in the male, _______ systems pass through the pelvic diaphragm
urogenital & digestive systems
in the male, the ______ system joints the urinary system while in the pelvis
the reproductive system
in males, these two systems join within the prostate gland
the reproductive and urinary systems
reproductive organs in the female
ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, external genitalia
reproductive organs in the male
testes, epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, external genitalia
perineum, function
anchors roots of external genitalia
______ attaches to bone & perineal membrane in females
______ attaches to bone & perineal membrane in males
pelvic inlet aka
pelvic brim
5 structures that comprise the pelvic inlet
sacral promontory, ala of sacrum, arcuate line of ilium, pectineal line of pubis, pubic symphysis
four shapes of pelvic inlet
anthropoid, gynecoid, android, platypelloid
most common shape of pelvic inlet
lateral wall muscles of pelvis
obturator internus & piriformis
obturator internus & piriformis exit to
go to lower limb
lateral wall bones of pelvis
pelvic bone
pelvic bone is a composite of which three bones?
pubis, ilium, & ischium
greater sciatic notch is ______ to ischial spine
lesser sciatic notch is ________ to ischial spine
obturator foramen is
that big hole in the hipbone!
ligaments that convert the sciatic notches into foramina
sacrotuberous & sacrospinous ligaments
two foramina into which the sciatic notches are converted
greater sciatic foramen & lesser sciatic foramen
the piriformis muscle passes through
the greater sciatic foramen
the obturator internus passes through
the lesser sciatic foramen
pelvic outlet is shaped like
a diamond
boundaries of the pelvic outlet
pubic symphysis, ischiopubic rami, sacrotuberous ligaments, & coccyx
pelvic outlet can be divided into
the UG triangle & the anal triangle
ischiopubic ramus is comprised of
inferior pubic ramus & ischial ramus
pelvic floor of the pelvic diaphragm has two (paired portions), which include
levator ani & coccygeus mm.
perineal membrane
thick, triangular fascia located only anteriorly between paired rami
perineal membrane, function
strengthens (supports) pelvic floor anteriorly
perineum lies _______ to pelvic floor
imaginary line between paired ischial tuberosities forms these two triangles
UG and anal
three major foramina of pelvis
obturator, greater sciatic, lesser sciatic
obturator foramen connects
pelvis with thigh
greater sciatic foramen connects
pelvis with gluteal area
lesser sciatic foramen connects
perineum with gluteal area
ASIS & pubic tubercle lie in the same
vertical plane
UG & anal triangles are located in
different planes
pelvic cavity projects
pelvic inlet is angled at ____ degrees forward relative to horizontal
pudendal n., fiber type
pudendal n., arises from
S 2-4
as it exits the pelvis, the pudendal n. becomes
the greater pudendal n.
as it enters the perineum, the pudendal n. becomes
the lesser pudendal n.
the ischial spine is used as a landmark for locating
the pudendal n.
erection is made possible by
pelvic splanchnic nn.
pelvic splanchnic nn, fiber type
pelvic splanchnic nn, arise from
S 2-4
pelvic splanchnic nn arise from ______ plexus
pelvic plexus
in males, the pelvic splanchnic nn follow
the urethra
in females, the pelvic splanchnic nn follow
the vagina
perineal body is
the place where the structures of the pelvic floor intersect with structures in the perineum; it's a fibromuscular node
perineal body covered by
levator ani mm & muscles in the UG & anal triangles (including the skeletal muscle sphincters associated with the urethra, vagina, & anus)
the course of the urethra differs in
males vs. females
in the male, there are _____ angles within the penile urethra
in men, the urethra first passes through the
after passing through the prostate, the urethra courses through
the deep perineal pouch & perineal membrane
the male urethra finally becomes enclosed within
the erectile tissues of the penis before opening at the end of the penis
the fixed angle of the male urethra is the location where
the urethra bends anteriorly in the root of the penis after passing through the perineal membrane
the non-fixed angle of the male urethra occurs
distally where the unattached part of the penis curves inferiorly; when the penis is erect, this second angle disappears
this angle disappears when the penis is erect
the non-fixed angle of the male urethra
pelvic (hip) bone comprised of
three bones
three bones of hip
ilium, ischium, & pubis
female bony pelvis, three characteristics
wider subpubic angle (80-85); larger pelvic inlet; larger pelvic outlet
male bony pelvis, three characteristics
narrower subpubic angle (50-60); smaller pelvic inlet; smaller pelvic outlet
pelvic inlet, true conjugate diameter
A-P diameter; upper margin of symphysis to midpoint of sacral promontory
pelvic inlet, oblique diameter
sacroiliac joint to iliopectineal eminence of opposite side
pelvic inlet, most common type
pelvic inlet, second most common type
anthropoid shape, characteristics
ape-like, larger A-P diameter
platypelloid shape, characteristics
large transverse diameter
sacroiliac joint, type
mixed: cartilaginous & synovial
sacroiliac joint has _______ mobility with age
sacroiliac joint is more mobile in
females (females have greater synovial component that lasts longer before becoming cartilaginous
two main ligaments of pelvic wall
sacrospinous ligament & sacrotuberous ligament
pelvic ligaments, function
stabilize sacrum & convert notches into foramina
lumbosacral joint, characteristics
typical cartilaginous joint of vertebral column with ligaments similar to other intervertebral joints
iliolumbar ligament, characteristic & attachments
triangular-shaped, attached to tip of TP of L5, iliac crest, & ala of sacrum
iliolumbar ligament, function
checks against L5 sliding forward on S1 and limits rotation of L5 on S1
two muscles of lateral wall of pelvis
piriformis & obturator internus
pelvic diaphragm, function
closes pelvic outlet; separates pelvis & perineum
two portions of pelvic diaphragm
levator ani & coccygeus mm.
levator ani innervated on both __________
inferior & superior surfaces; important clinically
UGD, function
aids pelvic diaphragm in supporting the bladder & reproductive organs of pelvis (both sexes)
UGD, composition
two layers of fascia & two muscles
two fascial layers of UGD
superior fascia of UGD and perineal membrane
two muscles of UGD
deep transverse perineus and sphincter urethrae
in males, UGD contains
Cowper's glands
in females, Bartholin's glands located
in superficial space