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32 Cards in this Set

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What is the second most common cause of suprapubic swelling.
distended bladder, thus it should be expelled be diagnosis is made
Up until the age of 8 where is the bladder located?
abdomin
Where would one palpate or aspirate a child's bladder?
suprapubis
How much liquid can an adult bladder hold?
1 liter
What is found at the anterior segment of the bladder and what is this a remnant of?
median umbilical ligament: urachus
Which direction is a full bladder face?
forward
What is customarily done before vaginal exams?
emptying of the bladder
What is a common cause of a lacerated bladder?
fractured pubis
What is a "vesicouterine reflex"?
when the valve-like portion of the ureter does not function and urine reflxes back up into the ureters
Where would mucus in the urine come from, teh bladder or the ureters?
ureters, the bladder has no glands
if the uterus lies in the same axis as the vagina the intra abdemal pressure pushes the uterus down the vagina, what can happen
the uterus can prolapse
What is a "vesicovaginal fistula?
it is when a tear of the cervix extends into the bladder during delivery
What is a common cause of uterine prolapse in older women?
divarication (division) of the levator anis by multiparity
When retroversion of the uterus was thought to be a problem, how was the uterus pulled forward?
shortening of the round ligaments
What does air or gas put into the cervix and then heard bubbling int eh peritoneal cavity demonstrate?
the connecdtion between the peritonium and the uterine tube
What can be missed behind the rectal valves (of Houston)?
cancer
what is coccydynia?
pain in the coccyx regiona and easy movement of teh coccyx by rectal exam
What can be palpated on a male via rectal exam?
a diseased seminal vessicle, full bladder, posterior part of the prostate
What can be palpated on a male via rectal exam?
cervix, ovaries, and retroverted uterus
What is an imperforate anus?
it's when the upper 2/3s of the anal canal (endoderm-cloaca) and the lower 1/3 (proctodeum) do not meet
Give an example of how the degree of cervical dilation can be monitored during childbirth?
palpate the cervix
what effects can a perforated duodenum have in the pelvis?

What are symptoms of the above ?

Give a differential diagnosis of the above symptom
1. acid secretions flows down to the pelvic peritoneum?

2. swelling and soreness upon palpation of the peritoneal region

3. a ruptured leaking ectopic pregnancy pour s blood int the pouch
Is it possible to palpate hte ovary?
yes, laterally, especially if it's abnormal
What is cryptitis?

how is this observed?
1. inflammation of the anal glands in teh small crypts between the anal columns

2. pus can sometimes be seen in the crypts
What is require for complete fecal continence?

How are minor degrees of fecal incontinence caused?
1. integrity of the anorectal ring (puborectalis ring, external sphincter and circular muscle of teh internal sphincter)

2. when small portions of the internal or external sphincter are damaged
The intrusion of the _____ lobe of the prostate into the bladder disrupts the internal sphincter and allows the urine to trickle into the urethra to produce the earliest symptoms of prostatium (pee in the middle of the night→noctuoria) site of benign prostatic hypertrophy.

2. The _____ lobe on the other hand is the lobe in which carcinoma of the prostate (older men)
1. middle

2. prostate
What part of the urethra do secretions and purulent collections tend to pool there and cause stricture formation
At the beginning of the penile part of the urethra (bulb of the penis) there is a dilation called the intrabulbar fossa where this occurs
what are the the pros and cons of women having a shorter urethra?
26. Female urethra is much shorter which makes catheterization much easier but also makes women much more prone to urinary tract and bladder infections. Furthermore vaginal injuries tend to involve the urethra more often and can lead to vesicovaginal fistulas
In a women, what is the lowest part of the peritoneal cavity, why is this clinically important?
the peritoneum posterior to the fornix

27. Much easier to feel impacted foreign matter in the urethra and rectum than normal structures. Collections of blood (hematomata) or neoplastic masses can be felt in the “cul de sac” area of perineum (fornix), prolapsed ovaries in the fornix. The body of the uterus can be felt via bimanual examination with one hand in the vagina and the other on the abdomen the urterus size can be estimated
Which direction does a cervix point in an anteverted uterus?

Retroverted?
anteverted: backward

retroverted: forward
What can be palpated anteriorly in vaginal examinations?

What cannot be palpated anteriorly?
foreign bodies

the urethra
What role do the Bartholin (bulbourethral) glands play?

what is their clinical relevance?
1. lubrication during intercourse

2. The Bartholin (bulbourethral) glands of the women commonly become infected when its ducts block; looks like a swelling at the jnc of the anterior 2/3 and posterior 1/3 of the vaginal outlet... e.g. gonorrhea