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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The pectoral region coves the
anterior chest wall and part of the lateral wall
What is the superior border of the pectoral region
What is the medial border of the pectoral region
What is the inferior border of the pectoral region
ribs and costal cartilages
Most prominent superficial structures of the pectoral region are
breasts (contain mammary glands)
Male breast is rudimentary the nipple is a landmark located at
4th intercostal space
The female breast is located in superficial fascia between ribs
2nd & 6th ribs
overlies pectoral
Supporting ligaments of the breast is a series of thickened strands of connective tissue called
suspensory ligaments (coopers ligaments)
ext from skin to deep fascia
Artery supply of the breast is from medial mammary branches of
internal thoracic art. laterla mammary branch of lateral thoracic art, pectoral branch of thoracoacromial art and perforating branch from ant intercostal art.
Lymphatic drainage of the breast is very important d/t invasion of lymphatics by
carcinoma of mammary glandular tissue
Lymphatic vessels draining glandular tissue pass into
subareolar plexus (located under nipple)
Subareolar plexus is continous w/ cutaneous _____plexus connecting w/ _____plexus from the other breast
circumareolar plexus
contralateral plexus
Most of the lymphatic drainage (75%) of the breast is to lymph nodes of
axilla (pectoral group of nodes)
Lymph drainage from medial side passes into the thorax via _____nodes along the internal thoracic artery (may cross ML to opp breast)
parasternal nodes
Inferior lymph may flow through abdomen and drain into nodes in the
upper abdomen
Muscles of the pectoral region
pectoralis major,minor subclavius
serratus anterior
Originates from medial third of clavicle, sternum, & ribs 2-6
Pectoralis major
Pectoralis major inserts
lateral lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus
Actio of Pectoralis major
adductor and medial rotator of arm
Pectoralis major
clavicular head nerve
lateral pectoral nerve (C5-7)
Flexes the arm
Pectoralis major
sternocostal head nerve
medial pectoral nerve (C8-T1) extends flexed arm
Originates from ribs 3-5
Pectoralis minor
Pectoralis minor inserts
coracoid process of the scapula
Pectoralis minor actions
stabilizes scapula by pulling inferior and anterior
Pectoralis minor is largely covered by Pectoralis major and invested by
clavipectoral fascia (runs clavicle to axillary fascia)
Pectoralis minor is innervated by which nerve
medial pectoral nerve
originates first rib
Subclavius inserts
Action of the subclavius
pulls acromion anterior, drawing clavicle medially
Subclavius is innervated by
the nerve to the subclavius (C5.6)
Originates from ribs 1-8
serratus anterior
Serratus anterior inserts
ant surface of the medial border of the scapula
Serratus anterior action
protracts scapula & holds against thoracic wall, inferior fibers rotate scapula (arm can be raised above shoulder)
Serratus anterior innervated by
thoracic nerve (C5-7)
Pyramidal shape between upper limb and the thoracic wall
The axilla space contains
great vessels and nerves of limb
Nerves of axilla are grouped together, enclosed in layer of fascia called
axillary sheath
Muscles form the anterior wall
pectoralis major, minor, subclavius (lateral broder = pect major forms anterior axillary fold)
Posterior wall is composed
by scapula & subscapularis muscle to a lesser extent teres major & latissimus (form post axillary fold)
Medial wall is formed by the
serratus anterior
lateral wall is formed by
intertubercular goove of humerus
base (floor) is the
skin & fascia of armpit, connection of axillary fascia w/ clavipectoral fascia supports floor
apex is aperture that opens into the
base of the neck, bound by clavicle, scapula and 1st rib
Large artery is direct continuation of the subclavian artery begins at the lateral border of the first rib
axillary artery
ends at the inferior border of the teres major muscle becomes the
brachial artery
The axiallary aretery is divided into three parts related to the ______ muscle
petoralis minor
Superior part of pectoralis minor has only one branch
superior thoracic artery (supplies 1st & 2nd intercostals)
Deep to the pectoralis minor (2nd part) has two branches
thoracoacromial & lateral thoracic arteries
Thoracoaromial artery gives rise to
acromial, clavicular, deltiod and pectoral branches
The lateral thoracic artery supplies the
pectoral branches, serratus anterior, in females lateral portion of breast
Inferior the pectoralis minor has 3 branches
subcapular, ant circumflex humeral & posterior circumflex humeral arteries
Subscapular arteryis the largest branch of the axillary artery supplies the
latissimus dorsi and muscles posterior aspect of scapula
Two circumflex humeral arteries anastomose around the
humerus and supply surrounding muscles
Medial to the axillary artery this vein begins at the inferior broder of the teres major (continued from basilic vein
axillary vein
After the axillary vein recv's tributaries (Cephalic vein) it ends at the
lateral borbers of the first rib
After the axillary vein ends at the 1st rib it becomes the
subclavian vein
Axillary lymph nodes classified into 5 groups
pectoral, lateral, subscapular, apical, & central
Pectoral group surrounds the lateral thoracic artery near the inferior border of the
pectoralis major (recv lymph from ant thoracic wall and the breast
The lateral group lies along the lateral wall of the axilla and recv lymph from the
upper limb
the subscapular group is located near the subscapular vessels recv's lymph from
posterior thoracic wall and the scapular region
Central group is situated deep to the pectoralis minor and recvs lymph form the
lateral pectoral, subscapular group nodes.
Lymph from the central group passes into the
apical group nodes (located in the apex of the axilla along 1st part of the axillary artery
Efferent vessels from the apical nodes drain into channels along the
subclavian vein in the neck
The axillary space also includes muscles
short head of the biceps & coracobrachialis, tendon of long head of biceps (occupies intertubercular groove of humerus
removal of breast pectoralis major/minor, axillary lymph nodes
radical mastectomy
removal brest & axillary lymph nodes preserving pectoralis
modified radical mastectomy
Both radical mastectomy & modified require the preservation of _____nerve
to avoid paralysis of serratus anterior muscle
long thoracic nerve on lateral thoracic wall
Infections in the hand or forearm can result in
lymphangitis (inflam of lymphatic vessels