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250 Cards in this Set

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Conveys stimulus toward the cell body
Dendrite
The nerve cell bodies of the unipolar, sensory neurons form this enlarged structure
Dorsal root ganglion
Nerve cell processes of efferent fibers on their way to muscles; the bodies of the motor neurons are located in the ventral horn of the gray matter
Ventral root
A mixture of the incoming sensory processes and th outgoing motor processes; there are 31 pairs
Spinal nerves
Mixture of sensory and motor fibers that branch posteriorly
Dorsal Ramus
How many cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal spinal nerves are there (individually)?
8,12,5,2,1
What vertebrae is the lumbar plexus made up of?
T12,L1-4
How many pairs of peripheral nerves are there?
31 spinal nerves
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
Twelve
Conveys stimulus away from the cell body
Axon
Junction btwn axon and dendrite or cell body
Synapse
Insulating fatty substance (speeds up conduction velocity)
Myelin
Spaces btwn myelin sheaths
Nodes of Ranvier
One axon, multiple dendrites (motor cells, many interneurons)
Multipolar
One axon, one dendrite (special sensory cells)
Bipolar
One process acts both as a dendrite and axon (sensory cells)
Unipolar
Glial cell in the CNS that performs repair processes
Astrocytes
Glial cell in the CNS that produces myelin
Oligodendrocytes
Glial cell in the CNS that acts are garbage man (phagocytizes)
Microglia
Glial cell in the CNS thatline the inner cavities
Ependymal cells
Glial cell in the PNS that produces myelin
Schwann cells
Collection of neuronal cells
Nucleus
Collection of neuronal cell bodies in the PNS
Ganglion
Bundle of axons in the PNS
Nerve
Bundle of axons in the PNS
Nerve
Bundle of axons in the CNS
Tract
Axons that convey impulses toward
Afferent
Axons that carry the impulse away
Efferent
Composed of nerve cell bodies; no myelin coating
Gray matter
Sensory nerve processes bringing info into the spinal cord
Dorsal root
If a ligament crosses it has this in the name
Cruciate
If ligaments connect across joints on sides
Collateral
Located on the medial femoral condyle, this ligament prevents femur from moving on a fixed tibia
Posterior cruciate
These two ligaments of the knee protect joint and provide support
Medial collateral (tibial collateral) and Lateral collateral (fibula collateral)
The deltoid ligament as a whole does what?
Protect medial border of ankle and prevent excess Eversion
These lateral ligaments go from the talus to the fibula of the ankle and do what?
Prevent excess Inversion
These four ligaments make up the DELTOID ligament and are located medially from TIBIA to MEDIAL MALLEOLUS
Anterior tibiotalar, Posterior tibiotalar, Tibionavicular, and Tibiocalcaneal
These three ligaments are lateral on the ankle and connect from TALUS to FIBULA
Anterior talofibular, posterior talofibular, and calcaneofibular
This ankle ligament allows you to spring off a step (connects from CALCANEUS to NAVICULAR and TARSALS
Plantar calcaneonavicular
This ankle ligament goes from CALCANEUS to NAVICULAR and TARSALS also
Long plantar
This ligament is located on the anterior part of the tibia and prevents tibia from moving forward on the femur
Anterior cruciate
Produces bone cells and secretes organic material
Osteoblast
Mature bone cell
Osteocyte
Destroys bone cells by secreting acid
Osteoclast
End of long bone
Epiphysis
Growth line (early in life is cartilage)on a long bone
Epiphyseal line
Open and airy bone
Spongy
Tight and hard bone
Compact bone
Outer layer of bone (fibrous outer/cellular inner); pain sensitive
Periosteum
Mainly fat in a bone (center)
Yellow marrow
Tightly arranged in layers (lamellae)
Haversian system
Faster type of bone growth; fibrous tissue to bone (flat bones: skull, hip)
Intramembranous ossification
Bone growth from cartilage (epiphyseal plate)
Endochondral ossification
Rough and bony prominence
Process
Large blunt process only in the femur
Trochanter
Large blunt rounded process (smaller than trochanter)
Tuberosity
Smaller blunt rounded process (smaller than tuberosity)
Tuburcle
Pointed bony projection
Spine
Prominent border (rough)
Crest
Smooth concave surface
Fossa
Hole
Foramen
Rounded articular suface joined to the diaphysis of bone
Head of bone
Smooth convex structure joined to the shaft of long bone
Condyle
Eminence around condyle
Epicondyle
Smooth surface for articulation
Facet
Upper superior part of hip
Ilium
Lowest posterior part of hip
Ischium
Anterior part of hip
Pubis
Socket of hip (all 3 bones contribute to it)
Acetabulum
Medial malleolus is located on the
Tibia
Lateral malleolus is located on the
Fibula
Tibia and fibula contact the _____ of the ankle
Talus
Name the tarsal bones
Talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuboid and 3 cuneiforms
There are ___ metatarsal bones
Five
The hallux is the ____ ____
Great toe
Fibrous and immovable joints classification
Synarthrosis
A suture is a ____ joint and is located in the ______
Synarthritic; skull
The tibia and fibula have small amt of "give"...this is called _________ and is a synarthritic joint
Syndemosis
Cartilaginous joints that are slightly movable are _______
Amphiarthrotic
The joint btwn the ribs and sternum is described as ______
Synchondrosis
Fibrocartilage btwn bones such as pelvis and vertebrae are called ______
Symphysis
Movement in one plane (sagittal) (also called ginglymus)
Hinge
Trochoid (cervical spine) rotary
Pivot
Thumb joint (sellar)
Saddle
Freely movable, synovial fluid filled joints are called _______
Diarthrosis
Metatarsophalangeal joint; movement in sag and coronal planes
Condyloid
Bind bone to bone; excess stretch is a strain
Ligaments
These two ligaments of the hip prevent excess ABduction
Pubofemoral and iliofemoral (Y ligament)
Ligament of hip that prevents excessive internal rotation of the femur
Ischiofemoral
Heart muscles; involuntary; striated
Cardiac
Involuntary; lines walls of blood vessels, bronchi, etc
Smooth
Voluntary; striated
Skeletal
Fleshy part of skeletal muscle
Muscle belly
Attach muscle to bone
Tendon
Where tendon attaches proximally
Origin
Where tendons attach distally
Insertion
Fascicle, fiber, myofibril, myofilaments, (actin and myosin)
Sarcomere
Covers entire muscle
Epimysium
Surrounds a bundle of fibers called fasicle
Perimysium
Covers individual muscle fibers
Endomysium
Does essential motion (prime movers)
Agonist
Opposite motion of agonist
Antagonist
Muscle that prevents unwanted motion at one joint to facilitate motion at another
Synergist
Decreasing the angle at the joint
Flexion
Increasing the angle at a joint
Extension
Moving AWAY from midline
ABduction
Moving TOWARD the midline
ADduction
Combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction (pseudorotation)
Circumduction
Moving a bone around its longitudinal axis (internal; medial or external; lateral)
Rotation
Drawing the forefoot up and the heel down (toes to nose)
Dorsiflexion
Drawing the forefoot down the heel up (toes to ground; step on gas)
Plantarflexion
Turning the sole of the foot inward
Inversion
Turning the sole of the foot outward
Eversion
Turning the palm of the hand anteriorly (up)
Supination
origin: all lumbar vertebrae (5)
insertion: lesser trochanter of the femur
action: flexes hip
nerve: femoral nerve
Psoas Major
origin: ilium -iliac fossa
insertion: less trochanter of the femur
action: flexes hip
nerve: femoral nerve
Iliacus
Two muscles of the anterior hip
Psoas Major and Iliacus
The muscles of the anterior hip do what action?
Flex the hip
The muscles of the anterior hip are innervated by the
Femoral nerve
origin: posterior ilium; sacrum; (lower vert)
insertion: gluteal tuberosity (femur) IT band
action: extends hip (external rotation)
nerve: inferior gluteal nerve
Gluteus Maximus
origin: crest (outer surface)of ilium
insertion: greater trochanter of femur
action: ABduction of hip
nerve: superior gluteal nerve
Gluteus Medius
origin: outer surface of ilium
insertion: greater trochanter of femur
action: ABduction of the hip; stabilizes pelvis
nerve: superior gluteal nerve
Gluteus Minimus
origin: anterior border of sacrum
insertion: greater trochanter
action: external rotation of the hip
nerve: nerve to ________
Piriformis (triangular/ deep)
origin: complex
insertion: greater trochanter
action: external rotation of hip (weak extensor)
nerve: varies
Obturators Internus and Externus (deep/ below piriformis)
origin: complex
insertion: greater trochanter
action: rotation of hip ( and extend)
nerve: varies
Superior and inferior gemelli (deep/surround obturators)
origin:
insertion: greater trochanter
action: external rotation & extensor of hip
nerve: varies
Quadratis femoris (deep)
What muscles extend the hip?
Gluteus maximus, sup and inf gemelli, and quadratus femoris
What muscles abduct the hip?
Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, & tensor fasciae latae
What muscles rotate the hip?
Piriformis, sup and inf gemelli, quadratus femoris, and obturators
What muscle also flexes the hip as well as abducts?
Tensor fasciae latae
origin: ASIS
insertion: tibia (medial front)
action: crosses hip and knee - flexes
nerve: femoral nerve
Sartorious (longest muscle)
origin:AIIS
insertion: quadriceps tendon (patella); tibial tuberosity
action: crosses hip and knee -flexes hip and extends knee
nerve: femoral nerve
Rectus femoris
origin: posterior surface femur (linea aspera)
insertion: patella/ tibial tuberosity
action: extends knee
nerve: femoral nerve
Vastus lateralis
origin: linea aspera
insertion: patella/ tibial tuberosity
action: extends knee
nerve:femoral nerve
Vastus medialis
origin: anterior surface of femur
insertion: patella/ tibial tuberosity
action: extends knee
nerve: femoral nerve
Vastus intermedius
How many muscles are in the anterior thigh?
Five (sartorius, 4 quadriceps femoris)
Name the Quadriceps femoris
Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, v. medialis, v. intermedius
What two muscles in the anterior thigh flex the hip?
Sartorius and Rectus femoris
What muscles of the anterior thigh extend the knee?
Rectus femoris, v. lateralis, v. medialis, and v. intermedius
The Vastus Intermedius is _____ to the v. lateralis and v. medialis
Deep
origin: inferior ramus of the pubic bone
insertion: medial border of the tibia below sartorious
action: ADuction of hip; flexes knee
nerve: obturator nerve
Gracilis
origin: inferior ramus
insertion: posterior side of femur
action: hip ADuction
nerve: obturator nerve
Adductor longus
origin: ischial tuberosity
insertion: medial border of femur (all along)
action: hip ADuction
nerve: obturator nerve
Adductor magnus
How many muscles are in the medial thigh?
Five (pectineus, gracilis, adductor longus, brevis, and magnus)
All the muscles of the medial thigh are innervated by the ________
Obturator nerve
origin: long-ischial tuberosity short-linea aspera
insertion: (common tendon) into head of fibula
action: hip extensor; knee flexor
nerve: long-tibial nerve short-common peroneal
Biceps femoris
(superficial & longer tendon)
origin: ischial tuberosity
insertion: medial side of tibia
action: hip extensor; knee flexor
nerve: tibial nerve
Semitendinosus
origin: ischial tuberosity
insertion: medial tibial condyle
action: hip extensor & knee flexor
nerve: tibial nerve
Semimembranosus
How many muscles are in the posterior thigh?
Three (biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus)
What is the origin of the muscles of the posterior thigh?
Ischial tuberosity
What is the action of all the posterior muscles of the thigh?
Hip extensor & knee flexor
What nerve innervates the muscles of the posterior thigh?
Tibial nerve
position: lateral to tibia
action: dorsiflexion ankle; inversion of foot
nerve: deep peroneal nerve
Tibialis anterior
position: lateral to tibialis anterior
action: dorsiflexor; eversion of the foot; extends digits
nerve: deep peroneal nerve
Extensor digitorum longus
position: lateral to ext. digit. longus
action: single tendon to great toe; ankle dorsiflexon; inversion of foot; extends big toe
nerve: deep peroneal
Extensor hallucis longus
How many muscles are in the anterior leg?
Three (tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus)
What nerve innervates the anterior leg?
Deep peroneal nerve
What two muscles of the three of the anterior leg cause inversion of the foot?
Tibialis anterior and Extensor hallucis longus
origin: head and upper 2/3 of fibula
insertion: base of 1st metatarsal
action: plantarflexion; eversion (strong)
nerve: superficial peroneal nerve
Peroneus longus
origin: lateral and upper fibula
insertion: base of 5th metatarsal
action: plantarflexion; eversion
nerve: superficial peroneal
Peroneus brevis
How many muscles are in the lateral leg?
Two (Peroneus longus & brevis)
Both muscles of the lateral leg cause what 2 actions?
Plantarflexion and eversion
The Peroneus longus and brevis are both innervated by ________
Superficial peroneal
2 heads cross knee
origin: medial & lateral femoral condyles
insertion: calcaneal tendon
action: flexor of the knee; plantarflexor
nerve: tibial nerve
Gastrocnemius
superficial (below gastroc.)
origin: proximal parts of tibia & fibula
insertion: calcaneal tendon
action: plantarflexor
nerve: tibial nerve
Soleus
superficial (behind knee)
origin: lateral femoral condyle
insertion: calcaneal tendon
action: weak knee flexor; plantarflexor
nerve: tibial nerve
Plantaris (freshman nerve)
origin: lateral femoral condyle
insertion: proximal part of tibia
action: knee flexor
nerve: tibial nerve
Popliteus (deep)
position: medial
action: plantarflexor; flexes digits 2-5
nerve: tibial nerve
Flexor digitorum longus
position: lateral
action: plantarflexor ankle; flexes hallux
nerve: tibial nerve
Flexor hallucis longus (deep)
How many muscles are in the posterior leg?
Seven (3 superficial and 4 deep)
What muscles of the posterior leg plantarflexes?
Gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus and tibialis posterior
What muscles of the posterior leg flex the knee?
Gastrocnemius, plantaris, popliteus
What nerve innervates the posterior leg?
Tibial nerve
position: medial (insert hallux)
action: ABducts hallux
nerve: medial plantar nerve
Abductor hallucis
position: middle
action: flexes 2-5
nerve: medial plantar nerve
Flexor digitorum brevis
Flexes 2-5 indirectly; lateral plantar nerve
Quadratus plantae
Btwn tendons; flex metatarsal; phalangeal joints; medial plantar and lateral plantar
Lumbricales
action: ABducts 2,3,4
nerve: lateral plantar nerve
Dorsal interossei
Which muscles of the foot are superficial?
Abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and abductor digiti minimi
What muscles of the foot are deep?
Dorsal and plantar interossei
Brings tendons close to bone (looks like a wrap)
Retinaculum
Sinovial fluid to reduce friction (tunnels)
Sinovial tendon sheets
Spinal nerves in the sacral plexus S2-4 supplies muscles of pelvic floor
Pudendal
Branch of sciatic nerve from L4-S3 and then branches into medial and lateral plantar nerves (flexors)
Tibial nerve
Branch of sciatic nerve that divides into a sup. and deep
Common peroneal
Proximal muscles (motor neurons) connect _____ in horn
Medial
Hollow hole in blood vessel
Lumen
Internal coat; endothelium; interelastic membrane
Tunica intima
Middle coat-smooth muscle; elastic
Tunica media
Vessel that is a layer of endothelium; allows diffusion
Capillary
Takes blood to heart; valves ensure one way flow (esp. in lower extremities) less smooth muscle-lumen is larger
Vein
Two vessels connect (more in veins)
Anastomoses
Femoral triangle is made up of what muscles?
Inguinal ligament, sartorious, adductor longus, iliopsoas, pectineus
Femoral triangle contains what?
Femoral nerve, artery and vein
Popliteal fossa contains what muscles?
Biceps femoris, semitendinous, semimembranosus, lateral and medial head of gastrocnemius
Popliteal fossa contains what vessels?
Popliteal artery, vein, tibial nerve, and common peroneal nerve
Hole in adductor magnus
Adductor canal
Spinal nerves in the sacral plexus L4-S1 and innervates the gluteus medius and minimus
Sup. gluteal nerve
Spinal nerve in lumbar plexus L2-L4 that passes by psoas major, iliacus, crosses inguinal ligament and goes to ant. thigh
Femoral nerve
Spinal nerve in lumbar plexus L2-L4 that comes our of obturator foramen; medial compartment of the thigh
Obturator nerve
Spinal nerves in the sacral plexus L5-S2 and innervates gluteus maximus
Inf. gluteal nerve
All the muscles of the medial thigh do what?
ADuct the hip
Digits 2-5 have ___ bones... ____ ____ and ____
Three; proximal, middle, distal
Forms another foramen thru which a nerve comes
Sacrotuberous lig.
Opening btwn adjacent vertebrae through which spinal nerve emerges
Intervertebral foramen
Convexity of spine facing posteriorly
Kyphosis
Convexity of spine facing anteriorly
Lordosis
Lateral curve in spine
Scoliosis
What are the Erector Spinae muscles and what innervates them?
Iliocostalis, longissimus, and spinalis; dorsal rami nerve
Ribs 1-7 are ____ ribs.
True
False ribs do not reach sternum directly; these are ribs ___ - ___.
8-12
Ribs 8-10 are connected to costal cartilage of rib __.
Seven
Ribs 11 and 12 have no sternal attachments so they are called ________ ____.
Floating ribs
Ribs 3-10 articulate with the _______ of the thoracis vert.
Demifacets
These 3 muscles of the back rotate and extend vertbral column and span short segments
Transversospinalis, interspinales, intertransversales
45% of head rotation is done in the _____ and ____ . The rest is done in C2-C7.
Atlas and axis
Arteries of lower limb begin when the _______ _______ _______ crosses the inguinal lig. and becomes the ________ _______.
External iliac artery; femoral artery
Begins when the femoral a. passes thru the adductor hiatus/ canal (opening in adductor magnus)
Popliteal a.
Last branch of post. tibial a. of posterior leg
Peroneal a.
Last branch of post. tibial a. of posterior leg
Peroneal a.
Pulse of foot can be felt here; branch of ant. tib. a.
Dorsalis pedis a.
Supplies feet and toes with blood
Medial and lateral plantar aa.
Artery in posterior thigh that supplies the hamstrings
Deep femoral a
position: between flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus
action: plantarflexor; inversion of foot
nerve: tibial nerve
Tibialis posterior (deep)
What muscles of the leg cause inversion?
Tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, and tibialis posterior
What muscles of the leg cause eversion?
Extensor digitorum longus, peroneus longus, and peroneus brevis
Formed between articular processes of adjacent vertebrae; gliding type joints, allows for flexion, extension and rotation, depending on regional differences
Facet joints
Prevents excessive extension and runs length of vert. column
Anterior longitudinal lig.
Next to spinal canal and prevents excessive flexion
Posterior longitudinal lig.
Prevents excessive flexion and attaches on the spinous processes; has a thick part in cervical area called the ligamentum nuchae
Supraspinous ligament
Prevents excessive flexion; attaches under spinous process to the top of the next process
Intraspinous lig.
Connects posterior laminae
Ligamentum flava
Turns the sacrum and greater sciatic notch into a foramen; sciatic nerve comes thru it
Sacrospinous lig.
How many muscles are there in the posterior hip group?
Eight
(3 gluteus, tensor, piriformis, obturators, gemelli, and quadratus femoris)
Joint that can move in all planes (enarthroidal)
Ball and Socket
Composed of nerve cell processes; have myelin coating
White matter
Mixture of sensory and motor fibers that branch anteriorly; these are the processes that will be involved in the formation of nerve plexuses
Ventral ramus
Spinal nerves in the sacral plexus L4-S3 comes out under piriformis and has 2 divisions
Sciatic
Stem cells (immature) in center of bone
Red marrow
action: ADducts 3,4,5
nerve: lateral plantar nerve
Plantar interossei
Turning the palm of the hand posteriorly (down)
Pronation
origin: superior ramus of the pubic bone
insertion: femur (medial side)
action: ADuction of the hip
nerve: obturator nerve (and sometimes the femoral nerve)
Pectineus
Move blood away from heart; thicker wall
Artery
Outer coat-white fibrous connective tissue
Tunica externa or adventitia
Shaft of a long bone
Diaphysis
What one action does all three muscles of the anterior leg do?
Dorsiflexion of ankle
What three joints have gliding or arthodial joints?
Talocalcaneal, talonavicular, and calcaneocuboid
origin: anterior part of iliac crest
insertion: Gerdy's tuburcle (IT band)
action: ABducts and flexes hip
nerve: superior gluteal nerve
Tensor Fasciae latae (broad band of connective tissue; IT band)
position: lateral
action: abducts baby toe
nerve: lateral plantar nerve
Abductor digiti minimi
shorter (deep)
origin: inf. ramus
insertion: posterior side of femur
action: Adduction of hip
nerve: obturator nerve
Adductor brevis