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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
intramembranous ossification
forms flat bones of upper cranium, lavicles, sesamoid bones, madible, and hetertropic bones
IM ossification step 1
mesenchyme migratesto site differntitate into osteoproginator, develop into osteoblasts, osteoblasts form organic components of bone matirx and become osteocytes surrounded by matrix
IM ossification step 2
spicule formation takes place in surrounding tissue, blood vessels branch between them
IM ossification step 3
matrix develops into trabeculae to form latticework of spongy bone with red marrow, surface layers of spongy bone replaced by compact bone
endochondral ossification
forms most bones of body, long bones
EC ossification step 1
formation of mesenchymal template, formation of chondroblasts, make cartilage moel with perichondrium for bone to be, mid region chondrocytes hypertrophy & burst triggering calcification
EC ossification step 2
blood vessel penetrates perichondrium & osteoprogenitor cells divide by mitosis to become osteoblasts. A periosteal collar of bone formed around dead cartilage model
EC ossification step 3
periosteal capillaries grow into disintegrating cartilage model carrying osteoprogenitor cells to form Primary ossification center, osteoblasts form trabeculae of spongy bone
EC ossification step 4
osteoblasts form spongy bone and osteoclasts enlarge cavity to form marrow cavity
EC ossification step 5
secondary ossification centers fomred in epiphyses after osteoblasts and blood vessels penetrate calcified cartilage. more spongy bone formed and remodeled, compact bone on shaft thickens
longitudinal growth
interstitial growth,EC ossification at epiphyseal plates
zone of reverse cartilage
next to epiphyses, irregularly scattered small chondrocytes, chondrocytes anchor epiphyseal plate to epiphysis
zone of proliferating cartilage
larger chondrocytes stacked like coins, undergo mitosis tomake new chondrocytes causing expansion of the plate
zone of hypertrophic cartilage
even larger chondrocytes occur in columns, mature
zone of calcified matrix
few layers,mostly dead cells, osteolysis, osteoblast form diaphysis lay down bone, become osteocytes
circumferential bone growth
appositional bone growth, IM ossification, periosteal osteoblasts lay down matrix, endosteal osteoclasts break down matrix,marrow cavity enlarges,diaphyses at optimum thickness, minerals putinto blood stream
any break in a bone
closed reduction
setting a fracture with manioulation
open reduction
surgical setting of a fracture
incomplete fracture, incomplete breakage across bone
bone broken into two pieces
simple fracture, bone does not break skin
compound, bone protrudes through skin
fracture remains in normal alignment of bone fragments
fracture produces new and abnormal arrangements of bony elements
small fragments of bound are found between two main fragments
only seen in children, one side of bone breaks, other bends
bone is crushed
one fragment driven into another
fracture of distal end of radius w/ distal fragment displaced posteriorly
fracture of distal end of fibula w/ serious injury to distal tibial articulation. ligament attached to medial malleolus of tibia is torn
fracture breaks a bone across its long axis
spiral fracture
spread along the length of the bone produced by twisting stress
where chondrocytes are dying
partial fracture due to changes in training, harder surfaces, longer distances, greater speed
fracture due to weakening of bone caused by disease
broken bone portion is pressed inward
incomplete longitudinal fracture of a long bone