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306 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Exaggerated over curvature of thoracic area of vertebral column
Kyphosis
Lateral deviation of vertebral column
scoliosis
Major feature of cervical vertebrae
transverse foramina
vertebra located at level of iliac crest
L4
Ligament that connects internal surface of laminae of vertebrae
ligamentum flavum
Ligament that checks hyperextension of vertebral column
anterior longitudinal
Ligament affected with whiplash injury
Anterior longitudinal
Ligament which limits skull rotation
alar
Defective portion of vertebra with spondylolisthesis in cervical area
pedicle
defective portions of vertebra with spondylolisthesis in lumbar area
pars interarticularis, lamina
common direction of all superior articular facets of vertebrae
posterior
structure in contact with posterior surface of dens
transverse ligament of atlas (part of cruciate ligament)
most commonly herniated intervertebral disc
L4/L5
Most common nerve compressed with herniated intervertebral disc
L5
spinal nerve affected by protrusion of the disc between c5/c6
c6
Thoracic intercostal space located deep to triangle of auscultation
sixth
vertebral level of lumbar puncture
L4
innervation of suboccipital muscles
suboccipital nerve
roof of suboccipital triangle
semispinalis capitis
floor of suboccipital triangle
posterior arch of the atlas; posterior atlanto-occipital membrane
major vessel within suboccipital triangle
vertebral artery
synonym for dorsal ramus of C2
greater occipital nerve
inferior extend of dura - arachnoid sac
SV2
Inferior extent of spinal cord
L2
Location of internal vertebral venous plexus
extradural (epidural) space
Most frequently fractured bone of body
clavicle
most frequently dislocated carpal bone
lunate
most frequently fractured carpal bone
scaphoid
name of fracture of distal radius that produces dinner fork appearance
colles' fracture
nerve injured with fracture of surgical neck of humerus
axillary
Nerve injured with fracture of medial humeral epicondyle
ulnar
nerve injured iwth fracture of shaft of humerus
radial
muscle that is chief flexor and chief extensor at shoulder joint
deltoid
muscles innervated by axillary nerve
deltoid, teres minor
muscle that initiates abduction of arm
supraspinatus
most commonly torn tendon of rotator cuff
supraspinatus
two muscles that rotate scapula for full abduction of arm
trapezius, serratus anterior
tendon that courses through shoulder joint
long head of biceps
chief supinator muscle of hand
biceps brachii
injury to what nerve causes winged scapula
long thoracic
spinal levels of axillary nerve
C5 and C6
Spinal levels to muscles of hand
C8 and T1
Dermatome to thumb
C6
Nerve to thenar compartment
recurrent branch of median
nerve injured with wrist drop
radial
Innervation of adductor pollicis
ulnar (deep branch)
Innervation of all interosseous muscles of arm
ulnar (deep branch)
Region affected by upper trunk injury of brachial plexus
shoulder muscles
Region affected by lower trunk injury of brachial plexus
intrinsic hand muscles
nerve compressed with carpal tunnel syndrome
median
nerve affected by cubital tunnel syndrome
ulnar
paralysis of which results in total claw hand
lumbricals
boundaries of femoral triangle
inguinal ligament sartorius and adductor longus
structure immediately lateral to femoral sheath
femoral nerve
structure immediately medial to femoral artery in femoral sheath
femoral vein
contents of femoral canal
deep inguinal lymph node
medial boundary of femoral ring
lacunar ligament
structures that course throught entire length of the adductor canal
femoral artery and vein
structures that course through only portion of the adductor canal
saphenous nerve, nerve to vastus medialis, descending genicular vessels
muscle that forms floor of popliteal fossa
popliteus
Muscle that is chief flexor at hip joint
iliopsoas
muscle that prevents spelvis from tiltling when walking
gluteus medius
muscle that extends leg
quadriceps femoris
Muscle that unlocks knee joint
popliteus
muscle affected with foot slap
tibialis anterior
chief invertors of foot
tibialis anterior and tibialis posterior
chief elevators of foot
fibularis longus and fibularis brevis
ligament that checks backward displacement of femur on tibia
anterior cruciate
lgament laxity with positive valgus movement
medial collateral
most commonly injured ankle ligament
anterior talofibular
ligament stretched with flat foot
spring or calcaneonavicular
joints for movements of inversion and eversion
subtalar and transverse tarsal (midtarsal)
Major artery to head of femur in adult
medial femoral circumflex
nerve affected with fracture of head and neck of fibula
common fibular
tendon affected with avulsion fracture of fith metatarsal bone
fibularis brevis
Innervation of adductor magnus
obturator, tibial portion of sciatic nerve
nerve affected with tarsal tunnel syndrome
tibial
Cutaneous innervation to medial side of foot
saphenous (L4)
Cutaneous innervation to lateral side of foot
sural (S1)
Cutaneous innervation to heel
tibial
cutaneous innervation to dorsal aspect of web between toes 1 and 2
deep fibular
cutaneous innervation to most of dorsum of foot
superficial fibular
major dermatome to big toe
L4
dermatome to small toe
S1
Spinal level of patellar reflex
l4
Spinal level of achilles reflex
S1
Locking of knee when walking suggests
a meniscal tear
major injury triad with lateral impact to knee
medial collateral, medial meniscus and anterior cruciate
dermatome around nipple
T4
Vertebral level at inferior angle of scapula
T7
Structure that lies immediately posterior to manubrium
Thymus
Rib related to oblique fissure of lung posteriorly
2nd rib
Rib paralled by horizontal fissure of right lung
4th rib
Inferior extent of lung at MCL
6th rib
inferior extent of pleura in MCL
8th rib
Inferior extent of lung in midaxillary line
8th rib
inferior extent of pleural in midaxillary line
10th rib
inferior extent of lung posteriorly
10th rib
inferior extent of pleura posteriorly
12th rib
innervation of costal pleura
intercostal nerves
innervation of mediastinal pleura
phrenic nerve
site for auscultation of pulmonary valve
left 2nd interspace
site for auscultation of aortic valve
right 2nd interspace
site for auscultation of tricuspid valve
xiphisternal joint
site for auscultation of mitral valve
Left 5th intercostal space MCL
Heart chamber with greatest sternocostal projection
right ventricle
Chamber that forms apex of heart
left ventricle
major chamber that forms base of heart
left atrium
heart chamber that contains moderator band
right ventricle
Artery that determines coronary dominance
posterior interventricular
Usual origin of SA and Av nodal arteries
right coronary artery
Location of SA node
Crista terminalis
Major vessel that drains musculature of heart
coronary sinus
Innervation of fibrous pericardium
phrenic nerve
most common cause of systolic ejection murmur
aortic stenosis
Rib associated with sternal angle
2nd rib
vertebral level associated with sternal angle
disc between T4 and T5
Location of ductus arteriosus
Between left pulmonary artery and aorta
nerve potentially injured with repair of PDA
left recurrent laryngeal
Veins that unite to form brachiocephalic
subclavian and internal jugular
Veins that unite to form Superior Vena Cava
Right and Left Brachiocephalic
Termination of azygos vein
Superior vena cava
Structures that lie to right and left of thoracic duct
Azygos vein, aorta
Spinal level of greater splanchnic nerve
T5-9
Spinal levels of lesser splanchnic nerve
T10, T11
Spinal levels of least splanchnic nerve
T12
Thoracic structures that can compress esophagus
Left Bronchus, aorta, diaphragm
Disease often associated with thymoma
Myasthenia Gravis
Remnant of umbilical vein
Round ligament of liver
Dermatome to umbilical area
T10
Dermatome to suprapubic area
L1
Vertebral level associated with origin of celiac artery
T12
Vertebral level associated with origin of SMA
L1
Vertebral level asswociated with origin of renal arteries
L2
Vertebral level associated with origin of gonadal arteries
L2
Vertebral level associated with origin of IMA
L3
Vertebral level of umbilicus
Disc L3/L4
Vertebral level of aortic bifurcation
L4
Vertebral level for formation of IVC
L5
Spinal levels to muscles of anterior abdominal wall
T7-L1
Structure that form superficial inguinal ring
Aponeurosis of External oblique
Structure that forms deep inguinal ring
Transversalis Fascia
Structure that forms inguinal canal
inguinal ligament
Bony attachment of inguinal ligament
ASIS and pubic tubercle
Structures that form conjoined tendon
internal oblique and transversus abdominus
Abdominal layer continuous with external spermatic facia
External oblique
Abdominal layer continuous with cremasteric fascia
internal oblique
Abdominal layer continuous with internal spermatic fascia
Transversalis fascia
Structure that lies between protrusion site of direct and indirect inguinal hernias
inferior epigastric artery
Type of hernia that enters deep inguinal ring
indirect inguinal
Most common type of hernia
indirect inguinal
Most common side for inderect hernia
right side
type of hernia that protrudes through hesselbach's triangle
direct inguinal
boundaries of hesselbach's triangle
inguinal ligament, rectus abdominus, inferior epigastric artery and vein
type of hernia that traverses both deep and superficial rings
indirect inguinal
fluid in processus vaginalis
hydrocele
communication between greater and lesser sacs
epiploic foramen
Superior border of epiploic foramen
caudate lobe of liver
inferior border of epiploic foramen
part one of duodenum
posteror border of epiploic foramen
IVC
Ligament that contains portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct
hepatoduodenal (lesser omentum)
Structure that limits spread of ascitic fluid in left paracolic gutter
phrenicolic ligament
Structure that limits spread of ascitic fluid within infracolic compartment
root of messentary
Superior extent of right paracolic gutter
hepatorenal recess
most inferior portion of peritoneal cavity in female
rectouterine pouch
Structures supplied by celiac artery
Stomach, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas
Branches of celiac artery
Left gastric, common hepatic, splenic
Blood supply to stomach
right and left gastroepiploics, right, left and short gastrics
Major structures of stomach bed
pancreas, spleen, left kidney and suprarenal diaphragm
Ducts that join to form common bile duct
cystic and common hepatic
structure that separates right and left lobes of liver
falciform ligament
origin of cystic artery
right hepatic artery
Ribs directly related to spleen
Ribs 9-11
Organs related to spleeen
stomach, colon, left kidney and tail of pancreas
Artery to small intestine
SMA
Organs supplied by both celiac artery and SMA
duodenum and pancreas
Organ supplied by both SMA and IMA
Transverse colon
Vessel located posterior to head of pancreas
IVC
Vessel located posterior to neck of pancreas
Portal Vein
Veins that unite to form portal vein
Splenic and superior mesenteric
Clinicall important organs for portacaval anastamoses
esophagus, rectum, liver
Two structures that lie posterior to SMA near its origin
Left renal vein and duodenum
Three distinguing features of large intestine
Tenia coli, haustra and fatty appendages
Termination of left ovarian (testicular) vein
Left renal vein
Termination of right ovarian (testicular vein)
IVC
Location of inital pain of appendicitis
umbilical region
motor innervation of diaphragm
phrenic
Sensory innervation of diaphragm
phrenic, intercostal nerves
Spinal levels of phrenic nerve
C3-5
Vertebral level where IVC traverses diaphragm
T8
Vertebral level where esophagus traverses diaphragm
T10
Structures that traverse diaphragm with esophagus
right and left vagus nerves
Vertebral level where aorta traverses diaphragm
T12
Structure that traverses diaphragm with aorta
thoracic duct
Structure that traverses diaphragm through crura
greater, lesser and least splanchnic nerves
Structure that separates pelvis and perineum
pelvic diaphragm
Two Major components of pelvic diaphragm
levator ani, coccygeus
Two major components of levator ani
pubococcygeus, ileococcygeus
Two muscles which close lateral pelvic wall
obterator internus, piriformis
means by which obterator internus exits pelvis
lesser sciatic foramen
Means by which piriformis exits pelvis
greater sciatic foramen
innervation of detrusor muscle
pelvic splanchnic (S2-4)
Remnant of umbilical arteries
medial umbillical ligaments
Chief artery to rectal mucosa
superior rectal
Most common type of pelvic inlet in females
gynecoid
two remnants of gubernaculum in females
ovarian ligament, round ligament
ligament that contains ovarian vessels
suspensory ligament of ovary
lymph nodes for ovary and testis
lateral aortic (lumbar)
Normal position of uterus
anteverted anteflexed
chief uterine support
pubococcygeus
Ligament that contains uterine vessels
lateral cervical (cardinal)
Structure potenitally injured with hysterectomy
ureter
relation of ureter to uterine artery
inferior and posterior
structure that separates deep and superficial perineal spaces
perineal membrane (inferior fascia of Urogenital diaphragm)
Bony landmarks between anal urogenital triangle
ischial tuberosities
lateral walls of ischioanal fossa
fascia of obterator internus
structure that forms pudendal canal
fascia of obturator internus
structure that separates internal and external hemorrhoids
pectinate line
lymph nodes for area superior to pectinate line of anal canal
internal iliac, inferior mesenteric
lymph nodes for area inferior to pectinate line of anal canal
superficial inguinal
major structure of deep perineal space
sphincter urethrae
lymph nodes for glans penis
deep inguinal
muscle which compresses bulb of penis
bulbospongiosus
muscle which compresses crus of penis
ischiocavernosus
muscles which meet at perineal body
superficial and deep perineal, bulbospongiosus, external anal sphincter and pubococcygeus
Vertebral level of hyoid bone
C3
vertebral leve of thyroid cartilage
C4/C5
vertebral level of cricoid cartilage
C6
Muscles innervated by CN XI
Trapezius and SCM
Structures that course between ant and middle scalene
brachial plexus and subclavian artery
Innervation of omohyoid,sternohyoid and sternothyroid
ansa cervicalis
innervation of digastric muscle
anterior belly, CN V3, posterior belly and CN VII
Innervation of carotid sinus and carotid body
CN IX and X
Major structures to pass through pharyngeal wall superior to superior constrictor muscle
auditory tube levator veli palatini
Nerves of pharyngeal plexus
CN IX, X and sympathetics
Only muscle innervated by CN IX
Stylopharyngeus
Structures that pierce thyrohyoid membrane
internal laryngeal nerve and superior laryngeal artery
only muscle to abduct vocal cords
posterior cricoarytenoid
innervation of cricothyroid
external laryngeal nerve
innervation of laryngeal muscles exclusive of cricothyroid
recurrent laryngeal
Muscles that increas tension of vocal cords
cricothyroid
sensory nerve to larynx superior to vocal cords
internal laryngeal
sensory nerve to larynx inferior to vocal cords
recurrent laryngeal
site of aspirated lodged fishbone
piriform recess
afferent-efferent limbs of gag reflex
CN 9 and 10
Afferent-efferent limbs of cough reflex
both CN 10
Nerve injury that causes hoarseness following thryoid surgery
recurrent laryngeal
chief structures that traverse internal acoustic meatus
CN 7 and 8
forament where cn 7 exits skull
stylomastoid foramen
major arterial supply to calvaria and supratentorial dura
middle meningeal
major cutaneous nerve of face
CN V
major artery to internal structures of head
maxillary
spinal levels of symp fibers to head
T1 and T2
Autonomic ganglion for CN III
ciliary
Autonomic ganglion for CN 7
submandibular and pterygopalatine
Sensory ganglion for CN 7
geniculate ganglion
autonomic ganglion for CN 9
otic
muscle attached to disc of tmy
lateral pterygoid
muscle which retracts mandible
temporalis
major nerve to TMJ (pain with TMJ syndrome)
auriculotemporal
Specific nerves that elicit secretion from parotid gland
tympanic branch of CN 9, lesser petrosal
branch of CN 5 that carries ps to parotic
auriculotemporal
structure that opens into superior meatus of nasal cavity
posterior ethmoid sinus
structures that open into middle meatus of nasal cavity
frontal, maxillary, anterior and middle ethmoidal sinuses
Structure that opens into inferior meatus of nasal cavity
nasolacrimal duct
major artery to nasal cavity
sphenopalatine
most common site of nose bleed
kiesselbach's plexus
innervation of levator veli palatini
CN 10
Muscle that opens auditory tube
tensor veli palatini
innervation of tensor veli palatini
CN V3
Nerve that provides taste to anterior 2/3rds of tongue
chorda tympani
site of cell bodies for nerve that has taste to ant 2/3rds of tongue
geniculate ganglion
specific nerve that elicits secretion from submandibular gland
chorda tympani
Branch of CN 5 that carries PS to submandibular
lingual
nerve injured when tonsillar pillars sag and uvula deviates
Vagus
Nerve potentially injured with tonsillectomy
Glossopharyngeal
Muscle that protrudes tongue
Genioglossus
Nerve injured with deviation of protruted tongue
CN 12
Specific nerve that stimulates tear production
greater petrosal (CN 7)
sensory nerve to cornea
CN V1 (nasociliary)
Muscle that elevates and abducts eye
inferior oblique
Muscle that depresses and abducts eye
superior oblique
site of preganglionic nerve cells that elicit dilation of pupil
lateral horn, T1 and T2
Site of postganglionic nerve cells that elicit dilation of pupil
Supeiror cervical ganglion
Site of preganglionic nerve cells that elicit constricition of pupil
edinger westphal nucleus
Site of postganglionic nerve cells that elicit constriction of pupil
ciliary ganglion
innervation of external surface of tympanic membrane
auriculotemporal , CN 10
Innervation of internal surface of tympanic membrane
CN 10
Level where ascending aorta is continuos with arch of aorta
T4/T5
Level where arch of aorta is continuos with descending aorta
T4/T5
Effect of symp nerves on lungs
bronchodilation, vasoconstriction
effects of ps nerves on lungs
bronchoconstriction, vasodilation and glandular secretion
rationale for aspired small objects to go to the right pulmonary primary bronchus
wider diameter, shorter, more vertical
needle location for therapeutic pleural tapping
superior to 12th rib posteriorly
name given to portion of right ventricle prior to beginning of pulmonary trunk
conus arteriosus or infundibulum
name given to orientation where the uterus and vagina intersect at a 90 degree angle
anteversion
Name given to orientation where utering body and cervix intersect at a 10 to 15 degree angle
anteflexion
ridge located between the sinus venarum and right auricle
crista terminalis
nerve at rish when repairing a PDA surgically
left recurrent laryngeal
nerve at risk when performing thyroidectomy
both left and right recurrent laryngeal nerves
Specific muscle that holds that patella in place
vastus medialis
First portion of quadriceps femoris to atrophy with injury to femoral nerve
vastus medialis
Last protion of quadriceps femoris to recover following surgery
vastus medialis
innervation to nail bed of middle finger
median nerve
innervation to nail bed of ring finger
ulnar and median
Spinal nerve affected with herniated disc at L3/L4
L4