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77 Cards in this Set

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Respiration
The exchange of gas between an organism and its environment.
As the lungs expand, the pressure within the lungs is reduced compared to the pressure outside the lungs. Air moves through the open laryngeal valve into the lungs, equalizing pressure inside and outside the lungs. Muscles contract to reduce the volume of the chest cavity, creating positive pressure within the lungs
Spinal Column
Consists of 32-33 individual vertebrae. 7 Cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 3-4 coccygeal
Vocal Folds - anatomy
Have 3 layers: 1)epithelium - outer cover, 2)lamina propia (middle layer), 3)Vocalis muscle (body)
Arryepiglottic Folds
Connective tissue and muscle that extens from the tip of the arytenoids to the larynx. They separate the laryngeal vestibule from the pharynx and help preserve the airway.
Ventricular Folds
False folds. They compress during coughing and lifting heavy objects.
Myoelastic-Arodynamic Theory
The voal fold vibrate because of the forces and pressure of air and elasticy of the vocal folds. THe air flowing out of the lungs is temporarily stopped by the closed or nearly closed vocal folds. This builds up subglottic air pressure, which eventually blows the vocal folds apart and sets them into vibration
Benoulli Effect
Caused by the increased speed of air passing between the vocal folds, it is the "sucking' motion of the vocal folds toward one another. THe air moves with increased velocity through the glottal opening and open but somewhat constricted vocal folds. THe pressure between the edges of the vocal folds is decreased, and consequently, the folds are sucked together. Increased speed = decreased pressure = suck together
Mucosal Wave Action
The cover epithelium and superficial lamina propria and the transition (intermediate and deep layers of the lamina propia) over the vocalis muscle slide and produce a wave. The wave travels across the superior surface of the vocal fold and about 2/3rds of the way to the lateral edge of the fold. There is no vibration or phonation without the wave.
Resonation
The process by which voice, or laryngeal tone, is modified when some frequency components are dempened and others are enhanced. The resonators that serve to modify the laryngeal tone are the pharynx, the nasal cavity and oral cavity.
Source Filter Theory
Energy from the vibrating vocal fold (source) is modified by the resonance charactistics of the vocal tract (filter). The vocal tract is visualized as a series of linked tubes: oral cavity, pharynx, and nasal cavity. These linked tubes provide the vaiable resonating cavity that helps produce speech.
Peripheral Nervous System
is a collection of nerves that are outside the skull and spinal column. These nerves carry sensory impulses to the brain and motor impulses from the brain to the glands and muscles of the body.
Crainial Nerves
Emerge from the brain stem and are attached to the base of the brain. THey are part of the lower motor neuron system of the corticobullbar tract of the pyramidal system. Sensory nerves carry information from the sense organs to the brain. Motor nerves carry information from the brain to the muscles to make them move.
Olfactory
1. Smell (sensory)
Optic
2. Vision (motor)
Ocularmotor
3. Eye movement (motor)
Trochlear
4. Eye movement (motor)
Trigeminal
5. Face (sensor) jaw (motor)
Abducens
6. Eye movement (motor)
Facial
7. Tongue (sensory)
Acoustic
8. Hearing and balance (sensory)
Glossopharyngeal
9. Tongue and Pharynx (sensory) pharynx only (motor)
Vegus
10. Larynx, respiratory, cardiac, and gastrointestinal systems (sensory and motor)
Spinal Accessory
11. Shoulder, arm, and throat movements (motor)
Hypoglossal
12. Mostly tongue movements (motor)
Cranial Nerves
5 &7-12 are involved in speech, language and hearing
Spinal Nerves
(PNS, 31 pairs) are closely related to the automatic nervous system. Together, they control various body activities that are executed with little conscious effort or knowledge. They can be sensory, motor or mixed. They transmit motor information from the central nervous system to the muscles, and carry sensory information from the peripheral receptors tot he CNS.
Automatic Nervous System
(PNS) Controls and regulates the internal environment of our bodies. Sympathetic branch, Parasympathetic branch
Sympathetic Branch
PNS "fight or flight" and emotional arousal.
Parasympathetic Branch
PNS Brings the body back to a state or relaxation.
Anatomy of PNS
Cranial Nerves, Spinal Nerves, Automatic Nervous System (sympathetic branch, parasympathetic branch)
Anatomy of CNS
Spinal cord, brain
Central Nervous System
Acts as a motor command center from planning, originating, and carrying out the transmission of messages.
Brain stem
Connects the spinal cord with the brain via the diencephalon and serves as a bridge between the cerebellum and all other CNS structures.
Midbrain
(Myelencephalon) Contains structures that control many motor and sensory functions, including postural reflexes, visual reflexes, eye movements, and coordination of vestibular generated eye and head movements.
Pons
(Metencephalon) Involved in hearing and balance. Houses the nuclei of the trigeminal, facial, which are important for speech production.
Medulla
(myelencephalon) centers for control of vital automatic bodily functions such as breathing, digestion, heart rate, and blood pressure. This is where many of the pyramidal tracts decussate.
Reticular Activating System
Within the midbrain, brainstem, and upper portion of the spinal cord. Primary mechanism of attention and consciousness. It is important in controlling sleep-wake cycles. It integrates motor impulses flowing out of the brain with sensory impulses flowing into it.
Diencephaolon
Above the midbrain and between the brain stem and cerebral hemispheres. Contains the third ventricle, thalamus, and hypothalamus.
Thalamus
It regulates the sensory information that flows into the brain and relays sensory impulses to various portions of the cerebral cortex. Receives information about motor impulses from the cerebellum and the basal ganglia and relays this information to motor areas in the cerebral cortex. It is critical for maintenance of consciousness and alertness.
Hypothalamus
Controls emotions and helps integrate the actions of the ANS.
Basal Ganglia
Receives input primarily from the frontal lobe and relays information back to the high centers of the brain via the thalamus. Part of the extra pyramidal system, which helps regulate and modify cortical initiated motor movements, including speech. Lesions in the basal ganglia can result in unusual body postures, dysarthria, changes in body tone, and involuntary and uncontrolled movements that interfere with a person's voluntary attempts to walk, speak, or do many other activities.
Cerebellum
Regulates motor movements. Critical in control of speech movement. Regulates equilibrium (balance), body posture, and coordinated fine-motor movements. Damage can cause ataxia, associated with CP.
Cerebrum
Contains 10-15 billion neurons and weighs 3 pounds. Often referred to as gray matter because of the gray cells are on top.
Gyrus
A ridge on the cortex
Sulcus
A shallow valley
Fissure
Deeper valley. Boundaries between the broad divisions of the cerebrum
Longitudinal Fissure
Divides the cerebrum into left and right
Central Sulcus or fissure of Rolando
Divides the anterior from the posterior half of the brain.
Sylvian Fissure of Lateral Cerebral Fissure
Starts from the posterior part of the frontal lobe and moves laterally upward. The area surrounding it is critical in speech, language and hearing.
Frontal Lobe
Critical to the deliberate formation of plans and intentions that dictate a person's behavior. Contains areas critical for speech production
Primary Motor Cortex
Motor Strips - Controls voluntary motor movements for the opposite side of the body.
Supplementary Motor Cortex
Involved in motor planning of speech and a secondary role is regulating muscle movements
Broca's Area
Controls motor movements involved in speech production. It is important for well-articulated, fluent speech. Lesions can cause motor speech problems
Parietal Lobe
Primary somatic sensory area. It integrates contralateral somesthetic sensations such as pressure, pain, temperature and touch.
Postcentral Gyrus
Sensory strip. Primary sensory area that integrates and controls somesthetic sensory impulses.
Supramarginal Gyrus
Damage can cause conduction aphasia, and agraphia (a writing disorder)
Angular Gyrus
Damage can cause writing, reading, and naming difficulties and, in some cases, trascortical sensory aphasia.
Occipital Lobes
Primarily concerned with vision. Contains the primary visual cortex.
Temporal Lobe
In the dominant hemisphere, (left in most people) the auditory association area generally analyzes speech sounds so that the person recognizes words and sentences. In the nondominant hemisphere, the auditory association area generally analyzes nonverbal sound stimuli like environmental noises and music.
Primary Auditory Cortex
Receives sound stimuli from the acoustic nerve (8) bilaterally. It synthesizes that information so that it can be recognized as whole units.
Wernikies Area
Critical to the comprehension of spoken and written language. Damage can cause Wernike's aphasia
Pyramidal System
A direct motor activation pathway that is primarily responsible for facilitating voluntary muscle movement (including speech). Come from the cortex to the spinal cord and brain stem to ultimately supply the muscles of the head neck, and limbs. It is composed of corticobulbar and corticospinal tracts.
Corticospinal Tract
Nerve fiber descend from the motor cortex of each hemisphere through the internal capsule, midbrain and pons, then 80-85% decussate at the level of the medulla. The fibers synapse in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and communicate with the spinal nerves at different levels. Innervate muscles of the limbs and trunk.
Corticobulbar Tract
Critical to speech production. The fibers of this tract control all the voluntary movements of the speech muscles (except respiratory muscles.) The fibers decussate (not all) then terminate in the brain stem at the motor nuclei of the cranial nerves 3-12.
Extrapyramidal System
Transmits impulses that control the postural support (maintain posture and tone and regulate movement that results from lower motor neuron activity) needed by those fine-motor movements (as opposed to the pyramidal system's control of voluntary and find motor movements.) Important for speech production. It is a more indirect activation system that interacts with various motor systems in the nervous system.
Intrahemispheric Fibers
Connects areas within a hemisphere
Interhemispheric fibers
Connects areas between hemispheres
Projection Fibers
Create connections between the cortex and subcortical structures like the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and spinal cord
Association Fibers
Connects areas within a hemisphere
Commissural fibers
Connect areas between hemispheres. (corpus collosum)
Cerebral Ventricles
Cavities deep within the brain that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid that circulates throughout the nervous system and nourishes the neural tissues, removes waste products, cushions the brain, and regulates intercranial pressure
Meningies
Three layers of membranes that cover the brain: 1. Dura mater: outer most layer, thick and tough 2. Arachnoid: middle layer, thin vascular and web-like 3. Pia mater: Inner most layer, delicate, thin, adheres closely to the brain
Central blood supply
The brain consumes 25% of the body's oxygen and requires 20% of the body's blood.
Aorta
Main artery of the heart. It carries blood from the left ventricle to all areas of the body except the lungs
Vertebral arteries
They enter the skull and branch out to supply the spinal cord and many organs of the body.
Carotid Arteries
"External: supplies blood to the muscles of the mouth, nose, forehead, and face. Internal: Supplies different parts of the brain.
Circle of Willis
Provides a common blood supply to various cerebral branches. Formed at the base of the brain where the two carotid and the two vertebral arteries join. Blocked from above, brain damage will occur, blocked from below, brain damage may be minimal.