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34 Cards in this Set

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axon
the appendage of the neuron that transmits impulses away from the cell body
dendrite
receiving part of the neuron that get signals from adjacent cells
soma
(aka cell body) the compact area of a nerve cell that constitutes the nucleus and surrounding cytoplasm, excluding the axons and dendrites.
glial cell
a cell in the glia, the delicate network of branched cells and fibers that supports the tissue of the central nervous system
schwann cell
cell that wraps around a nerve fiber, jelly-roll fashion, forming the myelin sheath
oligodendrocyte
a glial cell with sheet-like processes that form the myelin sheath of nerve fibers in the central nervous system (brain and spine)
microglia
phagocytic (absorbs harmful material) cell designed to protect the CNS tissue
astrocyte
largest neuroglial cell, wraps around capillaries in the CNS, and controllers of the blood-brain barrier
blood-brain barrier
creates a barrier between brain tissues and circulating blood; serves to protect the central nervous system
cerebrospinal fluid
The serumlike fluid that circulates through the ventricles of the brain, the cavity of the spinal cord, and the subarachnoid space, functioning in shock absorption
ependymal cell
A type of neuroglia cell lining the central canal of the spinal cord or the brain
myelin
a soft, white, fatty material in the membrane of Schwann cells and certain neuroglial cells: the substance of the myelin sheath
nodes of ranvier
A constriction in the myelin sheath, occurring at varying intervals along the length of a nerve fiber
saltatory conduction
A form of nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from one Ranvier's node to the next, rather than traveling the entire length of the nerve fiber
epsp
excitatory postsynaptic potential

A local change in the depolarization produced in the postsynaptic neuronal membrane in response to an excitatory impulse; summation of these depolarizations can lead to discharge of an impulse by the neuron
ventricles
Any of the interconnecting cavities of the brain
voltage gated ion channel
ion channels that are opened/closed by changes in voltage. Some examples are Na+ channels at -40mV and K+ channels at +25mV.

Found in Axon membrane
chemically gated ion channel
ion channels that are opened/closed in the presence of a neurotransmitter. Example is acetylcholine channel
lobes of the cerebrum
frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital
frontal lobe
the anterior part of each cerebral hemisphere, in front of the central sulcus

Controls Judgement
temporal lobe
the lateral lobe of each cerebral hemisphere, in front of the occipital lobe

perception and recognition of auditory stimuli (hearing) and memory (hippocampus).
parietal lobe
the middle part of each cerebral hemisphere behind the central sulcus

perception of stimuli related to touch, pressure, temperature and pain.
occipital lobe
the most posterior lobe of each cerebral hemisphere, behind the parietal and temporal lobes

Controls many aspects of vision.
thalamus (location and function)
A large ovoid mass of gray matter situated in the posterior part of the forebrain that relays sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex
gray matter
nerve tissue, esp. of the brain and spinal cord, that contains fibers and nerve cell bodies and is dark reddish-gray
white matter
nerve tissue, esp. of the brain and spinal cord, which primarily contains myelinated fibers and is nearly white in color
ganglion
A group of nerve cells forming a nerve center, especially one located outside the brain or spinal cord
SSRI
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

A class of drugs, as fluoxetine hydrochloride, that inhibit the uptake of serontonin by the central nervous system, often used in the treatment of depression
MAOI
monoamine oxidase inhibitor

Any of a class of antidepressant drugs that block the action of monoamine oxidase in the brain, thereby allowing the accumulation of monoamines such as norepinephrine
glutamate vs GABA
A salt or ester of glutamic acid, especially one that functions as a neurotransmitter that excites cells of the central nervous system.

gamma-aminobutyric acid: a neurotransmitter of the central nervous system that inhibits excitatory responses.
metabotropic
relating to or being a receptor for glutamate that when complexed with G protein triggers increased production of certain intracellular messengers
monoamines
any of various biogenic amine neurotransmitters having a single amino group, as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine
serotonin
a neurotransmitter, derived from tryptophan, that is involved in sleep, depression, memory, and other neurological processes
catecholamines
Any of a group of amines derived from catechol that have important physiological effects as neurotransmitters and hormones and include epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine