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124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
loss of dorsiflexion (foot drop) - what nerve is injured?
common peroneal nerve (L4-S2) - PED - Peroneal Everts and Dorsiflexes
loss of plantar flexion - what nerve is injured?
tibial (L4-S3) -
TIP - tibial inverts and plantarflexes; if injured, can't stand on TIPtoes
loss of knee jerk - what nerve is injured?
femoral (L2-L4)
loss of hib adduction - what nerve is injured?
obturator (L2-L4)
positive anterior drawer sign indicates what?
tearing of ACL
anterior and posterior in ACL and PCL refer to what?
sites of tibial attachment
abnormal passive abduction indicates what?
torn MCL
what are the rotator cuff muscles?
SItS:
supraspinatus
infraspinatus
teres minor
subscapularis
what rotator cuff muscle helps deltiod abduct arm?
supraspinatus
what rotator cuff muscle laterally rotates arm?
infraspinatus
what rotator cuff muscle adducts and laterally rotates arm?
teres minor
what medially rotates and adducts arm?
subscapularis
what nerve injury is often secondary to injury of the shaft of the humerus?
radial
injury to what nerve results in loss of triceps brachii (triceps reflex), brachioradialis (brachioradialis reflex), and extnsor carpi radialis longus (wrist drop)?
radial nerve
what nerve is affected in an injury of the supracondyle of the humerus?
median nerve
injury to what nerve is not related to loss of power in any arm muscles but loss of forearm pronation, wrist flexion, finger flexion, and several thumb movements?
median nerve
injury to what nerve eventually results in thenar atrophy?
median nerve
injury to what nerve results in loss of sensation over the lateral palm and thumb and the radial 2 1/2 fingers?
median nerve
which nerve passes through pronator teres?
median nerve
what nerve may be affected with an injury to the medial epicondyle?
ulnar
what nerve injury is associated with impaired wrist flexion and adduction and imaired adduction of thumb and pinky and ring finger?
ulnar nerve
what nerve injury causes loss of sensation over the medial palm and the pinky and 1/2 ring fingers?
ulnar nerve
what nerve passes through the flexor carpi ulnaris?
ulnar nerve
what nerve injury is associated with a loss of function of coracobrachialis, biceps, and brachialis muscles (biceps reflex)?
musculocutaneous
what nerve passes through coracobrachialis?
musculocutaneous
waiter's tip results from what?
traction or tear of the superior trunk - C5/C6 roots
follows blow to shoulder or trauma during delivery
called Erb-Duchenne palsy
limb hangs by side (paralysis of abductors), is medially rotated (paralysis of lateral rotators), and forearm is pronated (loss of biceps)
Erb-Duchenne palsy - C5/C6 injury
what does the radial nerve provide innervation to?
'great extensor nerve'
BEST:
brachioradialis, extensors of wrist and fingers, supinator, triceps
this is the result of an embryologic defect & can compress the subclavian artery and inferior trunk of brachial plexus (C8, T1)
thoracic outlet syndrome - Klumpke's palsy
what are the results of thoracic outlet syndrome?
atrophy of thenar and hypothenar eminences
atrophy of interosseous muscles
sensory deficits on medial side of forearm and hand
disappearance of radial pulse upon turning head toward opposite side
what are the thenar muscles?
opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis
what are the hypothenar muscles?
opponens digiti minimi, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi
what 3 muscles close the jaw?
Masseter, teMporalis, Medial pterygoid (M's munch)
what muscle opens the jaw?
lateral pterygoid (Lateral Lowers)
all muscles with root glossus (except palatoglossus - vagus) are innervated by what?
hypoglossal
all muscles with root palat are innervated by what nerve? what is the exception?
vagus
except tensor veli palatini - innervated by mandibular branch of CN V (TENSor was too TENSE)
clinical landmark for pudendal nerve block?
ischial spine
clinical landmark for lumbar puncture?
iliac crest
nerve root for biceps reflex?
C5
nerve root for triceps reflex?
C7
nerve root for patella reflex?
L4
nerve root for achilles reflex?
S1
the muscles of mastication are innervated by what CN?
V3
what dermatome includes the kneecaps?
L4 (down on L4s)
what dermatome is at the inguinal ligament?
L1 (LI is IL)
where is McBurney's point?
2/3 of the way from the umbiblicus to the anterior superior iliac spine
winged scapula is the result of an injury to what nerve?
long thoracic
claw hand results from injury to what?
lower trunk (C8/T1) - ulnar nerve
injury to what nerve causes deltoid paralysis?
axillary
injury to this nerve causes difficulty flexing elbow, variable sensory loss
musculocutaneous
decreased thumb function/Pope's blessing results from what nerve injury?
median nerve
what nerve is likely to be injured after falling asleep with arm over chair?
radial nerve - 'saturday night palsy'
what dermatome is at the xyphoid process?
T7
what dermatome is at the nipple?
T4 - T4 at the teat pore
what dermatome is a high turtleneck shirt?
C3
what dermatome is a low collar shirt?
C4
what dermatome is a posterior half of a skull cap?
C2
what cranial nerve passes through the cribriform plate?
CN I
what cranial nerve passes through the optic canal?
II
what cranial nerves pass through the superior orbital fissure?
III, IV, V1, VI
what cranial nerve passes through the foramen rotundum?
V2
what cranial nerve passes through the foramen ovale?
V3
what cranial nerves pass through the internal auditory meatus?
VII, VIII
what cranial nerves pass through the jugular foramen?
IX, X, XI
what cranial nerve passes through the hypoglossal canal?
XII
muscle spindles help monitor what?
muscle length
(help you pick up a heavy suitcase when you didn't know how heavy it was)
golgi tendon organs monitor what?
muscle tension - senses tension and provides inhibitory feedback to alpha motor neurons
(make you drop a heavy suitcase you've been holding too long)
how is a muscle spindle oriented with respect to muscle fibers?
in parallel: muscle stretch - intrafusal stretch - stimulates Ia afferent - stimulates alpha motor neuron - reflex muscle (extrafusal contraction)
what is the gamma loop?
CNS stimulates gamma motor neuron - contracts intrafusal fiber - increased sensitivity of reflex arc
primitive reflex in which infant extends limbs when startled
moro reflex
primitive reflex in which infant seeks nipple
rooting reflex
primitive reflex in which infant grasps objects in palm
palmar reflex
primitive reflex in which large toe dorsiflexes with plantar stimulation
Babinski
what CNs lie medially at brainstem?
III, VI, XII
what CN is responsible for taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue, lacrimation, salivation (submaxillary & sublingual glands), eyelid closing?
facial nerve CN VII (also facial movement)
what CN is responsible for taste from posterior 1/3 of tongue, swallowing, salivation (parotid gland), monitoring carotid body and sinus chemo- and baroreceptors
CN IX (glossopharyngeal)
what CN is responsible for taste from epiglottic region, swallowing, palate elevation, talking, thoracoabdominal viscera, monitoring aortic arch and chemo- and baroreceptors?
vagus
which CN is responsible for monitoring carotid body and sinus chemo- and baroreceptors?
glossopharyngeal (IX)
which CN is responsible for monitoring aortic arch chemo- and baroreceptors?
vAgus (Aortic arch)
what cranial nerve is responsible for mastication and facial sensation?
trigeminal
where are the nuclei of CN III, IV located?
midbrain
where are the nuclei of CN V, VI, VII, VIII located?
pons
where are the nuclei of CN IX, X, XI, XII located?
medulla
which vagal nucleus carries visceral sensory information (e.g. taste, baroreceptors, gut distention)
nucleus Soliatarius (Sensory)
VII, IX, X
which vagal nucleus is responsible for motor innervation of pharynx, larynx, and upper esophagus (e.g. swallowing, palate elevation)?
nucleus aMbiguus (M-motor)
IX, X, XI
which vagal nucleus is responsible for sending autonomic (parasympathetic) fibers to heart, lungs, and upper GI?
dorsal motor nucleus
which artery passes through the foramen spinosum?
middle meningeal artery
what passes through the optic canal (3 structures)?
CN II, ophthalmic artery, central retinal vein
what passes through the foramen magnum?
spinal roots of CN XI, brain stem, vertebral arteries
what nerves pass through the cavernous sinus?
CN III, IV, V1, V2, VI and postganglionic sympathetic fibers en route to the orbit (nerves that control extraocular muscles plus V1 and V2)
among the nerves that pass through the cavernous sinus, which is the only one that is free floating?
CN VI
ophthalmoplegia, ophthalmic and mandibular sensory loss are symptoms of what?
cavernous sinus syndrome (due to mass effect)
this extraocular muscle moves the eye nasally
medial rectus (moves medial)
this extraocular muscle moves the eye temporally
lateral rectus (moves lateral)
this extraocular muscle moves the eye up and out
superior rectus
this extraocular muscle moves the eye down and out
inferior rectus
this extraocular muscle moves the eye up and in
inferior oblique
this extraocular muscle moves the eye down and in
superior oblique
how does the pupillary light reflex work?
light in either retina sends a signal via CN III to pretectal nuclei in the midbrain that activate bilateral Edinger-Westphal nuclei; pupils contract bilaterally
what does kuh-kuh-kuh test?
palate elevation - CN X
what does la la la test?
tongue CN XII
what does mi mi mi test?
CN VII - facial
what innervates the lower 1/3 of the esophagus?
splanchnic plexus - contains SM from splanchnic mesoderm
what innervates the upper 2/3 of the esophagus?
vagus
what are the order of layers that a needle passes through in an LP?
skin - superficial fascia - deep fascia - supraspinous ligament - interspinous ligament - interlaminar space - epidural space - dura - arachnoid - subarachnoid space
in a CN XII LMN lesion, which way does the tongue deviate?
toward the side of the lesion
in a CN V motor lesion, which way does the jaw deviate?
toward the side of the lesion
in a unilateral lesion of the cerebellum, which way does the patient tend to fall?
toward the side of lesion
in a CN X lesion, which way does the uvula deviate?
away from the side of the lesion
in an CN XI lesion, there is weakness turning the head which way?
to the contralateral side of the lesion
in a CN XI lesion, on which side does the shoulder droop?
on the side of the lesion
wrist flexion is dependent on what nerve roots?
C6, C7, C8, T1
elbow flexion is dependent on what nerve roots?
C5, C6, C7
elbow extension is dependent on what nerve roots?
C6, C7, C8
arm abduction is dependent on what nerve roots?
C5, C6
sensation over the deltoid is dependent on what nerve roots?
C5, C6
palmar surface of first three digits derives its sensory innervation from what?
median nerve, C6, C7, C8
where is the chemoreceptor trigger zone?
floor of 4th ventricle
what is Ki-67?
a nuclear factor whose expression correlates with neoplastic replicative activity; Ki-67 labeling correlates with a neoplasm's rate of growth and, therefore, with prognosis
facial nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve emerge from the brain stem where?
cerebellopontine angle
momentary loss of consciousness followed by lucid interval?
epidural hemorrhage
what is the most common type of herniation?
posterolateral herniation of the nucleus polposus
what spinal nerve is between vertebrae C4 and C5
C5 spinal nerve
both neuronal and glial differentiation in a brain tumor
medulloblastoma