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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
vascular bone located in the vertebral body
trabecular (spongy cancellous), its enclosed by a thin layer of compact bone
formed by superior and inferior vertebral notches
intervertebral foramina
describe C vertebrae
smaller, large triangular vertebral foramen, transverse foramina absent in C7, articular facets are nearly horizontal, short and bifid
List the special characteristics of C vertebrae
C1 - atlas, lateral masses instead of body,no spinous process's, occipital condyles rest in articular surfaces, posterior arch has groove for vertebral artery/C1 nerve
C2 - Axis dens(odontoid process)

C6 - carotid tubercles, carotid artery may be compressed here b/w the tubercle and body

C7 - vertebra prominens, spinous long and not bifid
what is the dens held by?
the transverse ligament of atlas
what is the characteristic feature of thoracic vertebrae
costal facets for articulation with ribs
describe thoracis vertebrae
heart shaped body, circular vertebral foramen, more vertical articular processes, spinous processes point down

the most commonly fractured vertebrae, subject to transitional stresses
what is the largest moveable vertebrae
narrow vertebral foramin
lumbar spinal stenosis
what holds the cauda equina (bone), where does the equina start
sacral canal, cauda equina arises inferior to L1 vertebrae
important sacral obstetrical landmark
sacral promonotory, anterior projecting edge of the bodu of S1
Sacral crests
median crest - fusion of the spinous processes,
intermediate crest - fused articular processes
lateral crest - fusion of the transverse processes
sacral hiatus
results from absence of laminae and spinous process of S5, leads into the sacral canal,
marked by the sacral cornua
what type of joints are the joints of the vertebral bodies?
symphyses (secondary cartilaginous) weight bearing and strength
Describe IV discs
anulus fibrosus, concentric lamellae of fibrocartilage and nucleus pulposus, avascular
what vertebral junction is lacking a IV disc
C1 and C2
where is the most inferior functional IV disc?
L5 and S1
what special joints are located in C3-C6?
uncovertebral joints (lateral and posterio margins of the IV disc) join the uncinate process
Where does the anterior longitudinal ligament connect?
pelvic surface of sacrum to the anterior tubercle of C1, LIMITS EXTENSION
Posterior longitudinal ligament
thinner, weakly resists hyperflexion, prevents redirects posterior herniation of nucleus pulposus
Connects laminae
ligamenta flava
connects tips of spinous process
- where does it connect
from c7 to sacrum, merges superiorily with the nuchal ligament
connects the rest of the spineous process
zygapophysial joints are innervated by?
medial branches of the posterior rami of spinal nerves, each joint is supplied by two nerves,
resists separation of vertebral lamina by arresting abbrupt flexion of the vertebral column
connects adjacent transverse processes
intertransverse ligaments
What are the superficial muscles
TRapezius - cranial nerve 11
Levator scalpulae
rhomboid major
rhomboid minor
everything else innervated by brachial plexus
intermediate group muscles
serratus posterior superior
serratus posterior inferior
four subgroups of the deep muscles
muscles - ?
action - ?
splenius capitus and splenius cervicis, variably fused with one another

unilateral action: ipsilateral rotation of head and neck
bilateral: extension of head and neck
Erector spinae group


actions: extensors of the back erect posture
unilateral: lateral flexion of vertebral column and head
bilateral:extension of vertebral column
Transversospinalis group

transvers processes to superior spinous processes

semispinalis (superficial, 4-6 vertebrae, origin: transverse processs of C4-T12))

multifidus (2-4 vertebrae,origin: posterior sacrum/iliac spine, aponeurosis of erector spinae, transverse processes T1-T3 articular processes of C4 to C7)

rotatores(deep, 1-2 vertebrae, origin: transverse processes of vertebrae)

unilateral: lateral flexion or contralateral rotation (semispinalis, rotatores)

bilateral: extension of vertebral column or head(semispinalis, rotatores)

multifidus: stabalizes

between adjacent vertebrae

interspinalis (extend vertebral column)
intertransversarii(lateral flexion)
page 98 I say
IV discs, ligaments, most bone (periosteum), and coverings of the spinal cord are innervated by?
reccurent meningeal branches of spinal nerves
describe the coverings(meninges) of the spinal cord
pia mater
arachnoid mater
dura mater
what are intrinsic back muscles innervated by?
posterior rami of spinal nerves

list the muscles of the suboccipital region
rectus capitus posterior major/minor

obliquus capitis superior/inferior
what are the muscles of the subocciptial region innervated by
dorsal ramus of C1
suboccipital nerve
which of the muscles of the suboccipital region does not attach to the skull
obliquus capitus inferior
where do the muscles of the suboccipital region attach?
Transverse process C1 – obliquus capitis inferior, obliquus capitis superior
Spinous process C2 – rectus capitus posterior major, obliquus capitus inferior
Posterior tubercle C1 – rectus capitus posterior minor
Occipital bone of skull
what are the actions of the suboccipital muscles
bilateral: extension
lateral flexion: obliquus capitis superior
ipsilateral rotation: all others
contents of the suboccipital triangle
vertebral artery
suboccipital nerve
greater occipital nerve - closley related to the triangle, dorsal ramus of C2, passes inferior to the obliquus capitis inferior, ascends to become cutaneous to part of the posterior scalp
where does adult vs infant spinal cord end?
where does adult subarachnoid end?
adults spinal cord ends l1 l2
infants l2 l3
adults subarachnoid S2