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25 Cards in this Set

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where are ribosomes made?
in the nucleolus
what are ribosomes composed of?
2 subunits, one larger and one smaller
what are some passive methods of movement across the P.M.?
simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis and filtration
what is simple diffusion?
the movement of solutes from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration along the concentration gradient
what is facilitated diffusion?
the movement of a substance from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration with the help of a membrane transporter
what is osmosis and what are 3 examples of it?
the movement of water molecules, hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions
what happens in a hypertonic solution?
water moves out of cell and causes shrinkage(crenation)
what happens in a hypotonic solution?
water moves into cell and causes it to burst (lysis)
what are some active methods of movement across the P.M.?
endocytosis, exocytosis
what is active transport?
movement of substances AGAINST the concentration gradient
what happens in interphase?
90% of the life cycle is in this phase, cell carries out metabolic activities necessary for life(protein production etc)
what subphase in interphase has dna replication?
the S phase
what is mitosis and what happens in it?
a type of cell division that occurs in all somatic(body) cells and divides one somatic cell into 2 new cells that have the same number of chromosomes & the same function as the parent cell
what are the steps of dna replication (the s phase)?
1)hydrogen bonds between bases break and the molecule unzips exposing breaks 2)nucleotides in the nucleus pair to the complimentary bases on the unzipped dna strands 3)after the nucleotides have lined up, covalent bonds form on the backbones and hydrogen bonds form between the complimentary base pairs which results in 2 new dna molecules that are identical
what is the process of transcription and where does it occur?
the transfer of genetic information from DNA into RNA; the nucleus
what is translation and where does it occur?
the mRNA attaches to a ribosome in the cytoplasm, the mRNA code is translated into tRNA which is later transfered into a protein sequence;occurs in the cytoplasm
what is the sense strand?
the active strand that is used as the template during transcription
what is a codon?
a set of 3 consecutive nucleotides that code for 1 amino acid
what is an anticodon?
a tRNA with 3 bases that complimentary base pair with the codon on the mRNA
why is genetic engineering advantageous?
humulin, genetically engineered in E. coli eliminating the need for insulin from pigs and cows for people with diabetes
what are the 4 types of tissues?
epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues
what are characteristics and example of epithelial tissue?
covers surfaces, lines inside of organs and body cavities and forms glands;urinary bladder
what are characteristics and an example of connective tissue?
protects and supports body, binds organs together, provides immunity; bone tissue
what are characteristics and an example of muscle tissue?
main purpose is for movement, posture and generation of heat;cardiac muscle
what are characteristics and an example of nervous tissue?
initiate and transmit impulses that control and coordinate the functioning of the body; spinal cord