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97 Cards in this Set

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Medial inguinal fossa is between what 2 structures?
between medial umbilical ligament and lateral umbilical ligament (where the inferior epigastric artery is located). This area is also called the inguinal triangle--direct inguinal hernias break through here
Where do indirect inguinal hernias occur?
lateral inguinal fossa (space lateral to the lateral umbilical ligament, where the inferior epigastric artery is)
Where do direct inguinal hernias occur?
between medial umbilical ligament and lateral umbilical ligament (inferior epigastric artery)--AKA inguinal triangle or Hesselbach's triangle. So it's medial to the inferior epigastric artery
The inferior epigastric vessels can be found between what two layers in the abdominal wall?
between the transversus abdominis and parietal peritoneum (lateral umbilical fold)
An (indirect/direct) inguinal hernia leaves the abdominal cavity LATERAL to the inferior epigastric vessels and enters the inguinal canal through the deep inguinal ring.
indirect
(Indirect/direct) inguinal hernias are the most common type of hernia, and are often caused by heavy lifting. Can go into the scrotum
indirect
(Indirect/direct) inguinal hernias leave the abdominal cavity MEDIAL to the inferior epigastric vessels, through the weak abdominal musculature.
direct
Congenital inguinal hernias are (indirect/direct). Acquired inguinal hernias are (indirect/direct).
Congenital - indirect
Acquired - direct
What structures pass through the deep inguinal canal?
1. round ligament of the uterus/spermatic cord
2. ilioinguinal nerve

NOTE: the ilioinguinal nerve DOES NOT enter the inguinal canal via the deep inguinal ring as it exits at the superficial inguinal ring
The medial umbilical ligament is the obliterated ___________--it lies within the medial umbilical fold of peritoneum.
umbilical artery
What structures exit at the superficial inguinal ring?
1. spermatic cord/round ligament of the uterus
2. ilioinguinal nerve
What fossa is between the median and medial umbilical folds?
supravesicular fossa. Potentially, a very rare external supravesicular hernia could form here.
Which kind of hernia enters through both the deep and superficial inguinal rings?
indirect
Which kind of hernia enters through only the superficial inguinal ring?
direct
The (superficial/deep) inguinal ring is found above the pubic tubercle.
superficial
The (superficial/deep) inguinal ring is found near the midpoint of the inguinal ligament, below the anterior superior iliac spine. It is lateral to the inferior epigastric vessels.
deep
What nerve runs in the inguinal canal and can be compressed by an indirect inguinal hernia?
ilioinguinal nerve
The __________ is the most likely intestinal segment to be involved in a left-sided indirect inguinal hernia.
sigmoid colon
The inguinal triangle is the site for (direct/indirect) inguinal hernias.
direct
If a hernia enters into the scrotum, it is most likely a(n):
indirect inguinal hernia
Which hernia is NOT covered by internal spermatic fascia?
direct (it does not enter the spermatic cord through the deep inguinal ring)
Which umbilical fold contains the urachus (remnant of fetal allantois)?
median umbilical fold
Which umbilical fold contains the remnant of the umbilical artery (carried unoxgenated fetal blood back to mother)?
medial umbilical fold
Which umbilical fold contains the inferior epigastric vessels?
lateral umbilical fold
What is found medial to the lateral umbilical fold? Medial?
Lateral umbilical fold contains the inferior epigastric artery--medial to this is the inguinal triangle and lateral is the deep inguinal ring
Peritoneal layer and intestines: what vessels do not run together?
inferior mesenteric artery and vein do not run together
You can find the liver/gallbladder near what part of the duodenum?
1st part of duodenum (gallbladder can pass a stone to the duodenum or transverse colon here via fistula)
The _________ artery passes posterior to the first (superior) part of the duodenum and can be affected by a posterior perforation of a duodenal ulcer.
gastroduodenal
If the inferior mesenteric artery is occluded, the ___________ branch of the _____________ artery can take over.
middle colic branch of the superior mesenteric artery
Pain of appendicitis is often first felt around the umbilicus, indicating that the appendix receives its sympathetic (and thus visceral afferents) from which spinal cord segment?
T10
What anatomical feature of the colon can be used to find the appendix?
you can follow the Teniae coli to the appendix
The left colic flexture is also known as the ________. It prevents the spleen from moving downward.
splenic flexure
The vagus nerve supplies what part of the GIT? The pelvic splanchnic nerves?
the vagus supplies parasympathetics to the entire GI tract, up to the last part of the transverse colon. The end of transverse colon and all GI structures distal to that point receive parasympathetic innervation from the pelvic splanchnic nerves and blood from the inferior mesenteric artery
What arteries supply the lesser curvature of the stomach?
the right and left gastric arteries
What arteries supply the greater curvature of the stomach?
the right and left gastro-omental (epipLOic) arteries, as well as the gastroduodenal artery
The superior mesenteric artery and vein are found crossing (anterior/posterior) to the duodenum at what part?
anterior at the duodenum
If you are supine, fluids will drain into the ______________ recess.
hepatorenal
Fluids drain into the hepatorenal recess from what 3 areas?
1. epiploic foramen of Winslow
2. subphrenic recess
3. right lateral paracolic gutter

NOTE: THE right medial paracolic gutter DOES NOT drain into the hepatorenal recess.
What is superior mesenteric artery syndrome?
when the superior mesenteric artery (at the 3rd or inferior/horizontal part of the duodenum) is compressed against the aorta by the duodenum
What connects the duodenojejunal flexture to the diaphragm?
ligament of Treitz
The opening of the hepatopancreatic ampulla is found where?
where the major duodenal papillae start. the hepatopancreatic duct is a duct formed by the combination of the common bile and pancreatic ducts
The vagal branches to the stomach are found on the (lesser/greater) curvature.
lesser
The tail of the pancreas is associated with the spleen--this association is located within what ligament?
splenorenal
What are the retroperitoneal organs?
Retro
AC - ascending colon
DC - descending colon
Rocker - rectum
Kids - kidneys/adrenals/ureters
Party - pancreas
Down - duodenum
AORTA AND INFERIOR VENA CAVA
If ribs 9-12 on the left side of the body are fractured, the ________ is the first organ to be ruptured.
spleen
If the posterior wall of the stomach eroded, gastric juices could damage what 2 structures?
1. splenic artery
2. pancreas

Also, any structure on the bed of the stomach (left kidney, spleen, left suprarenal gland)
The epiploic/omental/Winslow's foramen is formed by what ligament?
hepatoduodenal ligament. remember, this foramen connects the lesser and greater sacs of the periotoneal cavity
michigan - stomach/spleen quiz question 16 on nerves
??
The fundus of the stomach receives its arterial supply from the:
short gastirc arteries coming off the splenic artery
Which arteries travel in the gastrosplenic ligament?
short gastric arteries coming off the splenic artery
The right gastroepiploic (gastro-omental) artery is a branch of the _________ artery. The left gastroepiploic (gastro-omental) artery is a branch of the _________ artery.
-right = gastroduodenal

-left = splenic
What are the 3 boundaries of the triangle of calot? What can be found here?
-liver, cystic duct, common hepatic duct.

-cystic artery found here
What 3 structures are in close proximity to the first part of the duodenum (ampulla)?
1. the gastroduodenal artery
2. the common bile duct
3. portal vein
What are two lobes of the left lobe?
the quadrate and the caudate lobes. Right lobe is ONLY the caudate process + right lobe
The gastroduodenal artery has what branches?
1. right gastro-omental supplying the right greater curvature of stomach
2. supraduodenal artery supplying the 1st part of the duodenum
3. superior anterior and posterior pancreatiocduodenal arteries supplying the 1st and 2nd division of the duodenum and the head of the pancreas
The hepatopancreatic ampulla is formed by what 2 ducts?
pancreatic duct and the common bile duct
The sensory component of the cremaster reflex is mediated by the ____________ nerve and motor is mediated by the ______________ nerve.
-sensory: ilioinguinal nerve
-motor: genitofemoral nerve

remember, cremaster reflex is from stroking the medial thigh
The duodenum is mostly (peritoneal/retroperitoneal) except for the duodenal cap/ampulla.
retroperitoneal
Tumors in the head of the pancreas usually often obstruct the ________________.
common bile duct
The structure that traverses the space between the aorta and first part of the superior mesenteric artery and is vulnerable to the nutcracker-like compression by these two vessels is the:
3rd part of the duodenum
The colon is found at which part of the duodenum?
2nd part (descending)
The gray rami communicantes are postganglionic fibers for peripheral visceral ______ (motor/sensory) functions that are uncoordinated (sweating).
motor
The umbilical cord becomes the ligamentum teres. The remaining vessel connecting the ligamentum teres and the inferior vena cava is called the _____________.
ductus venosus, which later becomes the ligamentum venosum.
The only nerve that passes through the deep inguinal ring is the __________.
genitofemoral nerve (genital branch). REMEMBER, the ilioinguinal exits at the superificial inguinal ring only to re-enter the inguinal canal laterally (does not cross the deep inguinal ring)
Hirschsprung's disease is caused by the absence of what kind of cell bodies?
parasympathetic postganglionic neuron cell bodies
A tumor between the celiac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery would compress the...
neck of the pancreas
Deep inguinal ring is derived from what fascia? Inguinal ligament? Superficial inguinal ring?
-deep: transversalis fascia
-superficial: external oblique aponeurosis
-inguinal ligament: external oblique aponeurosis
Cremaster muscle is derived from which abdominal layer?
internal abdominal oblique
Peyer's patches are found where in the small intestine?
ILEUM (not jejunum) because the closer you get to the colon, the more bacteria there is.
Which has more fat, jejunum or ileum?
ileum because it is not as active as the jejunum (which gets all the nutrients)
What nerve runs near McBurney's point?
iliohypogastric or ilioinguinal nerve
A tumor on the uncinate process of the pancreas would compress what structure?
the superior mesenteric artery
The appendix gets its blood supply from what artery?
the appendicular artery, a branch of the ileocolic artery
Meckel's diverticulum is a persistent remnant of the _________________.
vitelline duct (proximal part of yolk sak)
The greater omentum is formed from the ____________________.
dorsal mesogastrium
The floor of the inguinal canal is made up of what 2 ligaments?
inguinal and lacunar (lacunar is medial)
The deep inguinal ring is an invagination of the ________________.
transversalis fascia
The cell bodies of the preganglionic sympathetic neurons are located in the ______________.
prevertebral ganglia
The Posterior wall of the inguinal canal is reinforced in its medial one-third by the
conjoint tendon
The structure that is most in danger during surgical removal of the spleen (splenectomy) as it passes toward the hilum of the spleen within the splenorenal ligament is
tail of the pancreas
The portal vein is formed by the fusion of what 2 veins?
superior mesenteric and splenic vein
A direct inguinal hernia develops due to a weak
conjoint tendon
The branch of the lumbar plexus that traverses the inguinal canal to emerge through the superficial inguinal ring is the
ilioinguinal nerve
Meckel’s diverticulum is an outpocketing of the
ileum
The bare area of the liver is bounded by
anterior and posterior coronary ligament
The embryonic foregut ends just distal to the
liver bud
Extravasated urine from a ruptured urethra collects where?
between scarpa's fascia and deep fascia but does not extend into the thigh
If fluid is at the left side of the stomach, it becomes stuck here due to the _________________.
phrenicocolic ligament
Another name for Morrison's pouch is the....
hepatorenal recess
Another name for the omental bursa is the...
lesser sac
The umbilical artery is a branch of what?
the anterior trunk (anterior division) of the internal iliac artery
The ligament of Treitz is located between the...
duodenum and jejunum
Where is the triangle of petit?
lumbar area, in the junction of the latissimus dorsi and the external oblique muscles
What 3 structures are found in the hepatoduodenal ligament?
1. portal vein
2. hepatic artery
3. common bile duct
Spinal cord segments T5 - T9 are for what splanchnic nerve?
foregut (greater splanchnic nerve)
Spinal cord segments T10 - T12 are for what splanchnic nerve?
midgut (lesser and least splanchnic nerves)
Spinal cord segments for L1 - L2 are for what splanchnic nerves?
hindgut (lumbar splanchnic)