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26 Cards in this Set

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def: calyx (calyces)
fx: calyx
associated structures
def: Rising from the renal pelvis-branching extensions of the pelvis form two or three major calyces, each which subdivides to form several miror calyces,cup shaped areas that enclose the papillae.
fx: Calyces collect urine, that drains from the papillae>renal pelvis>calyces>ureter>bladder to be stored.
associated: Walls of calyces, pelvis, and ureter contain smooth muscle that contracts rhythmically to propel uring along its course by peristalsis
Why does the kidney have striations?
fx: striations
Renal pyramids appear striped because the are formed almost entirely of parallel bundles of microscopic urine-collecting tubules and capillaries.(tubules reabsorption-movement of filtrate components from tubules into the blood)
tubules secrestion(movement of substances ie. drugs, urea, excess ions-from blood into filtrate) capillaries(smallest blood vessels-site of esxchange btwn the blood/tissue cells.
def: nephrons
location:
components:
blood processing units of kidney that carry out process that form urine.
located within the glomerulus/ glomerular capsule which combine to make up the renal corpuscle
nephrons consist of a glomerulus and a renal tubule

each nephron has a glomerulus and renal tubule
def: renal pelvis
fx:
def: funnel shaped tube is continuous with the ureter leaving the hilum.
fx: muscle contracts/propels urine. transportation structure of urine into the ureter
def: thyroid
secretes:
def: endocrine gland located in the anterior neck.
secretes: 2 Thyroid Hormones in the follicles- Colloid- sticky material in the follicle consisting of thyroglobulin molecules with attached iodineatomss(TH). T3: TRIIODOTHYRONINE(3 bound iodine atoms and T4(4 bound iodine atoms: THYROZINE
fx:T3-T4 increases basal metabolic rate/ body heat production/maintains blood pressure/ tissue growth/ muscle/nerve-development
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Glycoprotein, thyrothoph
Pulmonary trunk:
Pulmonary arteries:
Pulmonary arch:
Aorta:
Receives: de-ox blood from right ventricle-Delivers: de-ox blood to lungs from pulmonary trunk.
Pulmonary arteries: carries ox+ blood from heart to circulatory system
Pulmonary arch:arises from the aorta with ox+ blood made up of aorta, brachiocephalic artery(divides into right subclavian artery and cartoid trunk)
aorta: makes an arch and continues as the dorsal aorta(pig)
Subclavian arteries:
Left
Right
Carotid arteries:
left: branches from the aorta
right: branches from the brachiocephalic artery(1st branch off of the aorta) divides into the
carotid trunk.
SUPPORT UPPER LIMBS
Carotid trunk: divides into right and left common carotid arteries.
left carotid artery: 2nd branch off of aorta
SUPPORTS:left head, neck, thoracic cavity
right head, neck
Villi in digestive system
def:
anat:
fx:
location:
def:finger like projections of the mucosa
anatomy:made of columnar cells
contains: core of villi is a lacteal
fx: increase intestinal surface area for digestion and absorption
located: duodenum
Appendix
fx:
secretes:
location:
fx: Provide protection, destroy bacteria(by preventing pathogens from entering the intestinal wall, increases immunity.
SECRETES: anti-bacterial mix containing lymphatic tissue(helps in immunological defense) and serotonin

loc: end of the cecum of large intestines, lower left side, below ascending colon
Glands of the duodenum that secrete mucous:
Brunner's Gland
secretes: produce alkaline (bi-carbonate-rich) mucus
fx: helps neutralize the acidic chyme from the stomach
What hormones do the adrenal medulla secrete?
Catecholimines-ephinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine
What hormones do the adrenal cortex secrete?
Corticosteroid hormones-
Mineralcorticodoid- Aldesterone: Increases water retention and blood volume helps regulate sodium/potassium levels
Glucacorticodid-
Cortisol:enhances metabolism
Androgens-
Testosterone: builds muscle mass, cell growth, secondary sex characteristics
Androstenidone-Estrogen
What are the parts of the nerve cell?
What do they do
Neurons:
def: highly specialized tissue that conducts impulses.
locat: brain, spinal cord, and nerves
fx: conduction of nerve impulses
Dendrites
fx: provide a large surface area for RECEIVING stimuli and conducting impulses to the nerve cell body
These stick out
Axon
fx: conducts impulses away from the cell body to another neuron or to an organ.
contains a myelin sheath
Adipose Tissue
fx: insulation, fat storage, cushioning, protection

location: beneath the skin, around the kidney and heart,
in the breast
Psuedostratified Ciliated Columnar

LOOKS LAYERED MANY CILIA AT THE FREE (TOP)END OF THE CELL
Single Layered
fx: Protection, secretion, movement of mucus and sex cells

location: lining of the reproductive system tubes, eustachian tubes, respiratory passages

appearance: Looks layered(but its not) has many cilia on the free end of each cell
Simple Ciliated Columnar

COLUMN SHAPED WITH CILIA

Single Layered
location: lining of uterine, fallopian tubes, little bit of respiratory tract
Simple columnar Epithelium

TALL CYLINDRICAL CELLS NUCLEUS NEAR THE BASE(BOTTOM)

Single Layered
Single Layered
fx: protection, secretion, absorption

location: digestive tract, stomach mucosa, large intestines rich with goblet cells(mucus producing) gallbladder, lining of the uterus
Simple cubodial Epithelium

CUBE SHAPED WITH CENTRAL (MIDDLE) OF CELL

Single Layered
fx: SECRETION, excretion, absorption
Stratified Squamos Epithelium

cubodial or columnar but gets FLAT toward the surface

Multilayered
OUTER (HARD) LAYER SKIN
fx: Keratin(outer layer)makes the skin tough, protective, repel water

location: linings of outside cavities (mouth, throat, anal cavity, vagina)
Stratified Squamos Epithelium

Multilayered
LINING OF OUTSIDE OPENINGS(CAVITIES)
fx: Protection and pliability

no keratin, outer layers moist and alive

location: linings of oral, nasal cavities, esophagus, vagina, anal canal
Stratified Cubodial Epithelium

CUBE SHAPED CELLS(usually 2 layers)
GLANDS
fx: strengthening luminal walls

location: ducts of larger sweat glands, salivary glands, pancreas
Transitional Epithelium

VERY LAYERED ROUNDED

Multilayered
URINARY TRACT
fx:distention

no keratin

location: lining of urinary bladder, ureters, urethra
Simple Squamos Epithelia

THIN, FLAT, MULTI SIDED CELLLS, NUCLEUS( MIDDLE)
fx: filtration, diffusion, osmosis

location: walls of capillaries, lining of blood vessels, heart, air sacs(lung), internal cavity lining
Skeletal Muscle
Voluntary-
STRATIFIED(LAYERED)
MULTIPLE NUCLEI
fx: produce force and cause motion

location: In muscles attached to the skeleton
Smooth Muscle
Involuntary-
SPINDLE SHAPED NOT STRIATED
1 NUCLEUS
fx: Slow, involuntary movements of internal organs,
moves substances in lumens of body

location: walls of hollow organs(ie.. intestines, blood vessels
Cardiac Muscle
Involuntary
BRANCHING STRIATED CELLS
1 NUCLEUS
fx: involuntary rhythms of the heart, pumps blood throughout the body