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58 Cards in this Set

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what are two main constituents of the CNS?
brain and spinal cord
what is the name for nerves that connect to the brain? That connect to the spinal cord?
cranial nerves, spinal nerves
how many pairs of cranial nerves exist? Spinal nerves?
12 pairs; 31 pairs
how are spinal nerves named?
by location on spinal cord where they are (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal)
how many cervical nerves are there? Thoracic nerves? Lumber nerves? Sacral nerves? Coccygeal nerves?
8; 12; 5;5;1
from which embryonic cells does the spinal cord arise?
from neuroepithelial cells lining the neural tube
which 3 layers develop from the neuroepithelium of the neural tube?
ventricular layer, mantle layer, marginal layer
which layer of neuroepithelium eventually becomes the ventral and dorsal horns of gray matter?
mantle layer
which 4 columns are the precursors of the ventral and dorsal horns?
2 basal plates ventrally and 2 alar plates dorsally
which layer of neuroepithelium eventually becomes the white matter?
marginal layer
which layer of neuroepithelium eventually becomes the lining of the central spinal canal (ependymal layer)?
ventricular layer
in the spinal cord, is the white matter located on the outside or inside?
which part of the spinal cord, white or gray matter, is shaped like a butterfly?
gray matter
which vertebrae mark the inferior end of the spinal cord?
what is the name for the terminal part of the spinal cord?
conus medullaris
where are the cervical and lumbar enlargements found?
C5-T1 and L1-S3, respectively
from the outermost to innermost layers, what are the three meninges which surround the spinal cord?
dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater.
what is contained in the epidural space? Where does the dural space end?
fat and internal vertebral venous plexus; at the sactal haitus
where does the dural sac begin and end?
begins at the foramen magnum, ends at S2 level.
what does the dural sac become after S2?
external filum terminale
the external filum terminale is anchored where?
what is the name for the potential space between the dura mater and arachnoid mater?
subdural space
where in the meninges is the CSF contained?
in the subarachnoid space
how far does subarachnoid space extend? Where can a spinal tap be performed?
to S2; between S2 and L2
what is the name for the pia mater than continues beyond the conus medullaris?
internal filum terminale
the denticulate ligaments extend from the pia mater to which layer?
dura mater
each spinal cord segment has how many spinal nerves attached?
how are spinal nerves connected to the spinal cord?
via ventral and dorsal root
which, the dorsal or ventral root, is the sensory root? The motor root?
dorsal; ventral
what are the names of the two branches of the spinal nerve?
dorsal primary ramus and ventral primary ramus
do the ventral and dorsal roots have ganglia?
no, only the dorsal root has a ganglion
where does the dorsal primary ramus go? The ventral primary ramus?
back; around the body wall, neck, trunk, limbs
other than the dorsal and ventral primary rami, what 2 branches come from the spinal nerve?
white ramus communicans and gray ramus communicans
which spinal nerves are "typical spinal nerves"? Why are atypical spina nerves atypical?
T2-T12; they do not just travel around the body wall - they form nerve plexuses and travel out into extremities.
which rami form nerve plexuses?
primary vertral rami
Through which holes do spinal nerves exit the vertebral column?
intervertebral foramina
which cervical nerves pass superior to their corresponding vertebrae? How do the rest of the spinal nerves exit in relation to their corresponding vertebrae?
C1-C7; inferiorly
how does the distance between a vertebra and the corresponding spinal nerve change as you progress inferiorly along the spinal cord?
it increases
what is the name for the nerve roots which exist beyond the spinal cord as they travel down to their corresponding vertebrae inferior to the conus medullaris?
cauda equina
what are the 3 basic parts of the neuron?
cell body, dendrite, axon
what is a nucleus in terms of neuron terminology?
a collection of cell bodies in the CNS
what is a tract in terms of neuron terminology?
collection of neuron processes (axons) in the CNS
what is a ganglion in terms of neuron terminology?
collection of cell bodies in the PNS that are enclosed by a connective tissue covering
what is a nerve in terms of neuron terminology?
collection of neuron processes (axons or dendrites) in the PNS that are enclosed by a connective tissue sheath
are unipolar neurons abundant in adult humans?
no, they are never found after birth
in which part of the nervous system are pseudounipolar neurons abundant?
where are bipolar neurons found, for the most part?
retina, hippocampus
where are multipolar neurons abundant?
both CNS and PNS
do afferent neurons create impulses toward or away from the CNS? Efferent neurons?
toward; away
what shape do afferent neurons take on? Efferent neurons?
pseudounipolar; multipolar
which parts of the body do somatic neurons innervate?
skeletal muscle, skin, bones, and joints
which parts of the body do visceral neurons innervate?
organs, glands, blood vessels
what are the 4 functional types of neurons and their abbreviations?
somatic afferent (GSA), somatic efferent (GSE), visceral afferent (GVA), visceral efferent (GVE)
what is the name for nerves that contain only GSA and GVA nerves? GSE and GVE nerves? Mixed variety?
sensory nerves; motor nerves; mixed nerves
what is the term used for the types of neurons a nerve contains?
functional components
which of the four functional neurons consists of a two-neuron system?
what is the term for the map of the human body which corresponds to spinal nerve skin innervation?
what are cutaneous nerves?
nerves that innervate the skin