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620 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are tissues?
are a group of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function
NAME
are a group of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function
tissues
What are the four primary tissues?
(1)epithelial (2)connective (3)muscle (4)nervous
NAME
are the "fabric of the body"
primary tissues
In one word describe the genereal role of epithelial tissue?
covering
NAME
the general role of this main tissue type is covering
epithelial
What is the general role of the connective tissue?
support
NAME
the general role of this main tissue is for support
connective
What is the general role of the muscle tissue?
movement
NAME
the general role of this main tissue is for movement
muscle
NAME
the general role of this main tissue is for control
nervous
What is the general role of the nervous tissue?
nervous
What is histology?
is the study of the tissues
NAME
is the study of the tissues
histology
Epithelial tissue is also called (1)
epithelium
(1) tissue is also called epithelium
Epithelial
What is Epithelial?
is a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity
NAME
is a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity
Epithelial
How can epithelial tissue ocur in the as body? (2)
(1)covering and lining epithelium (2)glandular epitheleum
The covering and lining epithelium forms the outer later of the (1),(2), and (3)
(1)skin (2)dips into and lines the open cavities of the cardiovascular, digestive, and respiratory system (3)covers the walls and organs of the closed ventral body cavity
(1) and (2) of (3) forms the outer layer of the skin, dips into and lines the open cavities of the cardiovascular, digestive, and respirartory system, and covers the walls and organs of the closed ventral body cavity
(1)covering (2)lining (3)epithelium
What are some of the main functions of Epithelial tissue? (6)
(1)protection (2)absorption (3)filtration (4)excretion (5)secretion (6)sensory reception
NAME
this main tissue's functions include protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, sensory, and reception
Epithelial tissue
What are the specail charracteristics of Epithelial tissue?
(1)cellulartiy (2)specialized contacts (3)polarity (4)supported by connective tissue
NAME
this main tissue's special characteristics include, cellularity, specialized contactsm polarity, and supported by connective tissue
Epithelial tissue
NAME
this means that cells are tightly packed together
Cellularity
How does Epithelial tissue have specialized contacts?
Epithelial cells fit close together to form continous sheets (2)Adjacent cells are bond together at many points
NAME
this main tissue has cells that fit close to together to form continous sheets and adjacent cells bond together at many points
Epithelial tissue
All (1) tissue has a apical surface
Epithelia
What is apical surface?
is an upper free surface exposed to the body exterior or the cavity of the internal organ and a lower attached basal body
NAME
is an upper free surface exposed to the body exterior or the cavity of the internal organ and a lower attached basal body
apical surface
All epithlea have an (1)
apical surface
What does it mean that all epithelia exhibit polarity?
means that cell regions near the apical surface differ from those near the basal surface in both structure and function
NAME
means that cell regions near the apical surface differ from those near the basal surface structure and function
epithelia tissue exhibiting polarity
NAME
are fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane
microvilli
What are microvilli?
are fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane
(1) tremendously increase the exposed surface area and in epithelia that absorb and secrete
microvilli
What is a brush border?
is because the mircovilli are so dense that the cell's apeice have a fuzzy appearnce
NAME
refers the mircovilli's fuzzy appearance due to thier density
brush border
NAME
propel substances along thier surface
cilla
Lying adjacent to the basal surface of an Epithelial tissue is a thin supporting sheet called the (1)
basal lamina
What is the basal lamina?
is a this supporting sheet that lies adjacent to the basal surface of an epitelial tissue
The basal lamina consists of (1) secreted by the epithelia cells
glycoprotiens
NAME
acts as a selective filter that determines which molecules diffusing from the underlying connective tissue will be allowed to enter the Epithelial tissue
basal lamina
the basal lamina acts as a (1) that determines which (2)
(1)selective filter (2)molecules diffusing from the underlying connective tissue will be
All epitheal tissues rest upon and are supported by (1)
connective tissue
All (1) tissue rest upon and are surrported by a connective tissue
epitheal tissue
Just deep to the basal lamina is the (1)
reticular lamina
Just (1) to the (2) is the reticular lamina
(1)deep (2)basal lamina
What is the reticular lamina?
a layer of extracellular material containing a fine network of collagen protien fibers that "belongs" to the underlying connective tissue
NAME
is a layer of extracellular material containing a fine network of collagen protien fibers that "belongs" to the underlying connective tissue
reticular lamina
What is the basement membrane?
is the combo of the two laminae
The reticular lamina and the basal lamina make up the (1)
basement membrane
what makes up the basement membrane? (2)
(1)basal lamina (2)reticular lamina
What is an important characteristic of cancerous epithelial cells?
they fail to respect the epitheal boundry which they penetrate to invade the tissues beneath
NAME
these cells tend to fail to respect the epithelial boundry by they penetrate to invade the tissue beneath
cancerous epithelial cells
the (1) reinforces the epitheial sheet, helping it to resist streching and tearing forces, and defines the epithelial boundry
basement membrane
What does innervated mean?
suppiled by the nere cells
NAME
means supplied by the nerve fibers
innervated
What does avascular mean?
means contains no blood
NAME
means contains no blood
avascular
NAME
these main tissue is avasular but innervated
epithelium
NAME
this main tissue has a high regenerative capacity
epithelium
T or F
as longs as epithelium cells reecieve adquate nutrion, they can replace lost cells by cell division
true
Each epithelium has two given (1)
names
What do each of the two names given to epithelium tissue refer to?
(1)the first name indicates the number of cell layers present and (2)the secound describes the shape of its cells
Based on the cell layers, what are two types of epithelium tissue?
(1)simple (2)straified
What is simple epithelia?
are composed of single cell layer
NAME
is tissue that is composed of a single cell layer
simple epithelia
NAME
this type of tissue is typically found where absorption and filtration ocurs
simple epithelia
What is stratified epithelia?
is consisting of two or more cell layers stacked one on top of the other
NAME
is consisting of two or more cell layers stacked one on top of the other
straified epithelia
NAME
this tissue can be found in high abrasion areas where protection is important such as the skin surface and the lining of the mouth
strafied epithelia
Strafied epithelia can be found in areas of (1) where (2) is imporant in areas like the skin surface and the lining of the mouth
(1)high-abrasion (2)protection
What are the three common shapes of epithelia cells?
(1)squamous (2)cuboidal (3)columnar
What are squamous cells?
are flattened scalelike
NAME
are flattened and scalelike
squamous cells
what are cuboidal cells?
are boxlike
NAME
are boxlike
cuboidal cells
What are columnar cells?
are tall and column shaped
NAME
are tall and column shaped
columnar cells
in Strafied epithelia, the cell shapes (1)
differ amoung differ layers
In (1) epithelia, the cell shapes differ amoung the different layers
Strafied
(1) are most concerned w absorption, secretion, and filtration
simple epithelia
Simple epithelia are most concerned w (1), (2), and (3)
(1)absorption (2)secretion (3)filtration
What are simple squamous epthelium?
are flattened latterly and thier cytoplasm is sparse
NAME
are flattened laterly and thier cytoplasm is sparse
simple squamous epthelium
What are two differ types of simple squamous epithelia that have two special names that reflect thier location?
(1)Endothelium (2)Mesothelium
What is Endothelium?
provides a slick, friction-reducing lining in the lymphatic vessels
Endothelium and Mesoethelim are two types of (1) tissue named after thier location
epithelium
NAME
provides a skick, friction-reducing lining in the lymphatic vessels
endothelium
What is the mesothelium?
is the epithelium found in the serous membrane lining the ventral body cavity and covering its organs
NAME
is the epithelium found in the serous membrane lining the ventral body cavity and covering its organs
mesothelium
NAME
is a single layer of flattened cells w disc shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm
simple squamous epithelium
NAME
is the simplest of the epithelia
simple squamous epithelium
What are the functions of the simple squamous epithelium? (2)
(1)allows the passage of materials by diffusion and filtration (2)secretes lubricating substances in seroasae
NAME
functions of this tissue include allows passage of diffusion and filtration and secretes lubricating substances in seroase
simple squamous epithelium
What is simple cuboidail epithelium?
consists of stable layer of cells as tall as they are wide
NAME
consists of stable layer of cells as tall as they are wide
simple cubiodial epithelium
NAME
this epithelum forms the walls of the smallest ducts and of many kidney tubules
simple cuboidal epithelium
Simple cuboidal epithelium forms the walls of the (1) and of many (2)
smallest ducts (2)kindey tubules
What is simple columnar epithelium?
is seen in a single layer of tall, closely packed cell, aligned like soliders in a row
NAME
is seen in a single layer of tall, closely packed cell, aligned like soliders in a row
simple columnar epithelium
NAME
this tissue lines the digestive tract from the stomach through the rectum
Simple columnar epithelium
Simple columnar epithelium lines the (1) from the (2) through the (3)
(1)digestive tract (2)stomach (3)rectum
What are two functions that make simple columnar epitheileum for a dual function?
(1)dense mircovilli on the apical surface of absorpotive cells (2)globet cells that secrete a protective lubricating mucus
What are globet cells?
are cells that secrete a protective lubricating mucus
NAME
are cells that secrete a protective lubricating mucus
globet cells
NAME
this tissue the cells vary in height resting on the basement membrane, but only the tallest reach the free surface of the epithelium
pseudostratifed columnar epithelium
What is pseudostratified columnar epithelium?
in this tissue the cells vary in height resting on the basement membrane, but only the tallest reach the free surface of the epithelium
What is the major role of pseudostratified columnar epithelium?
protection
NAME
the major role of this tissue is protection
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
NAME
single layer of cells of differing hieghts, some not reaching the free surface, nuclei are seen at all different levels and many contain globet cells
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What is the function of pseudostratified columnar epithelium? (2)?
(1)secretion particullay mucous (2)propulsion of mucous by cillary action
NAME
functions include secretion particually mucous and propulsion of mucous by cillary action
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
NAME
single layer of cubelike cells w large, sperhical central nuclei
simple cubiodal epithelium
NAME
thier functions include secretion and absorption
simple cubiodal epithelium
What are the functions of simple cubiodal epithelium? (2)
(1)secretion (2)absorption
NAME
are simple layer of tall cells w round to oval nuclei;some cells bear cilla; layer may contain mucous secreting unicellular glands
simple columnar epithelium
What are the functions of simple columnar epithelium? (4)
(1)absorption (2)secretion of mucous (3)cillated type propel mucous (4)cilla action
NAME
functions include absorption, secrtion of mucous, cillated type propel mucous and cilla action
simple cilumnar epithelium
What is strafied squamous epithelium?
is the most widespread of the strafied epithelium
NAME
is the most widespread of the strafied epithelium
strafied squamous epithelium?
NAME
composed of several layers, it is thick and well suited for its protective role in the body
strafied squamous epithelium?
Where are strafied squamous epithelium most likly found?
in areas subjected to wear and tear and where its surface cells are constantly being rubbed away
NAME
is most likley to be found in areas subjected to wear and tear and where its surface cells are constantly being rubbed away
strafied squamous epithelium?
the outer layer of the epidermis is (1)
keratnized
the outer layer of the (1) is keratnized
epidermis
strafied squamous epithelium is (1)the other strafied epithelia are (2)
(1)keratinized (2)nonkeratnized
strafied squamous epithelium forms the (1)
external part of the skin
(1) forms the external part of the skin
strafied squamous epithelium?
What is the strafied cuboidal epithelium?
is a quite a rare in the body and is mostly found in the ducts of some of the larger glands
NAME
is quite a rare in the body in the body and is mostly found in the ducts of some of the larger glands
strafied cubiodal epithelium
What is the stratifed columnar epithelium?
has limited distrubtion in the body
NAME
has limited distrubtion in the body
strafied columnar epithelium
What is transitional epithelium?
forms the lining of the hollow urinary organs which strech as they fill w urine
NAME
forms the linings of the hollow urinary organs which strech as they fill w urine
transitional epithelium
NAME
thick membrane composed of several cell layers, basal cells are cubiodal or columnar and metabolically active; surface cells are flattened; in the kertanized type; the surface cells are full of kertain and dead; basal cells are active in mitoisis and produce the cells of the more superfical layers
strafied squamous epithelium
NAME
in the kertanized type; the surface cells are full of kertain and dead; basal cells are active in mitoisis and produce the cells of the more superfical layers
strafied squamous epithelium
NAME
resembles both strafied and squamous and strafied cuboidal; basal cells dome shaped or squamous;depending on degree of organ strech
transitional epithelium
What are the functions of the transitional epitehlium?
streches readily and permits the distension of urinary organ by contained urine
NAME
function of these tissue is that it streches readily and permits the distension of urinary organ by contained urine
transitional eptiehlium
What is the function of the strafied squamous epithelium?
protects underlying tissue in areas subject to abrasion
NAME
protets underlying tissue in areas subject to abrasion
strafied squamous epithelium
What is gland?
consists of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product
NAME
consists of one ore more cells that make and secrete a particular product
gland
What is secretion?
is an aqueous fluid that usally contains protiens, but there is a variation
NAME
is an aqueous fluid that usally contains protiens, but there is a variation
secretion
Glands are classifed as (1) or (2)
endocrine (2)exocrine
what does endocrine?
means internally secreting
NAME
means internally secreatng
endocrine
What does exocrine?
externally secreting
NAME
means externally secreting
exocrine
What are endocrine glands?
are glands that lose thier ducts
NAME
are glands that lose thier ducts
endocrine glands
(1) glands are often called the ductless glands
endocrine
endocrine glands are often called the (1) glands
ductless
What are horomones?
are regulatory chemicals that they secrete chemicals by exocytosis
NAME
are regulatory chemicals that they secrete chemicals by expocytosis
hormones
All (1) glands secrete thier substances on the skin or into the body cavities
exocrine
some individiual hormone producing cells are scattered in the digestive tract mucos and in the brain giving rise to thier collective description as the (1)
diffuse endocrine system
What are exocrine glands?
are far more numerous than endocrine glands and many of their products are familiar
NAME
are far more numerous than endocrine glands and many of thier products are familar
exocrine glands
What is a ex of unicellular exocrine gland?
goblet cell
NAME
goblet cell is a ex
unicellular exocrine gland
(1) cells are sprinkled in the epithelial linings of the intestinal
globet
Unicelllular exocrine glands all proudce (1)
mucin
(1) glands in humans all produce mucin
unicellular exocrine
What is mucin?
a complex glycoprotien that dissovles in water when secreted
NAME
is a complex glycoprotien that dissolves in water when secreted
mucin
Once dissolved, mucin formes (1)
mucus
Once disolved, (1) forms mucus
mucin
What is mucus?
a slimy coating that protects and lubricates surfaces
NAME
is a slimy coating that protects and lubricates surfaces
mucus
What are the two parts of multicellular exocrine glands?
(1)an epithelium-derived duct (2)secretery unit
NAME
consists of two parts an epithelium-derived duct and secretery unit
multicellular exocrine glands
in all but the simplest glands, (1) surrounds the secretory unit and supplies blood vessels and nerve fibers and forms a fibrous capusle
supportive connective tissue
in all but the simplest glands, supportive connective tissue surrounds the secretory unit and suppiles (1)and forms a fibrous capsule
blood vessels and nerve fibers
What are simple glands?
are glands that have an unbranched duct
NAME
are glands that have an unbranched duct
simplest glands
What are compound glands?
glands w a branched duct
NAME
are glands that have branched ducts
compound ducts
simple glands and compound glands are even further characterized by thier (1)
secretory units
What are the different varations of simple and compound glands? (3)
(1)tubular (2)alveolar (3)tubuloalveolar
What does tubular?
means that the gland's seceretory cells form tubes
NAME
means that the glands secreretory cells form tubes
tublar
What is alveolar?
means that the glands form small, flasklike sacs
NAME
means that the glands form small, flasklike sacs
alveolar
What does tubloalveolar?
are glands that have both types of secretory units (tubes and flastlike sacs)
NAME
are glands that have both types of secretory units (tubes and flastlike sacs)
tubloaveolar
Most multicellular exocrine glands are (1) which secrete thier products by exoctyotosis as they are produced
merocrine glands
most (1) are mecocrine glands that secrete thier products by exocyotosis ad they are produced
multicellular exocrine glands
What are mercorine glands?
glands that secrete thier products by exocytosis as they are produced
NAME
are glands that secrete thier products by exocytosis as they are produced
mercorine glands
What are holocrine glands?
are glands in which the secretory cells accumulate thier products within them unitl they rupture
NAME
are glands in which the secretory cells accumulate thier products within them unitl they rupture
holocrine glands
What are the three main types of connective tissue?
(1)connective tissue proper (2)cartilage (3)osseous (4)blood
What are the different (2) subclasses of connective tissue proper?
(1)loose connective tissue (2)dense connective tissue
What are the subclasses of loose connective tissue? (3)
(1)areolar (2)Adipose (3)Reticular
What are the subclassses of dense connective tissue? (3)
(1)regular (2)iregular (3)elastic
What are the (3) subclasses of cartilage?
(1)hyaline cartalige (2)fibrocartilage (3)elastic cartilage
What are the two subclasses of osseuous ?
(1)compact bone (2)spongy bone
NAME CONNECTIVE TISSUE
contains fibroblast and fibrocyte
connective tissue proper
Connective tissue proper has (1)
fibroblasts
Cartilage has (1)
chondroblast
Osseous has (1)
Octeoblast
Blood has (1)
hematopoetic stem cells
NAME CONNECTIVE TISSUE
contains hematopeotic stem cells
blood
NAME CONNECTIVE TISSUE
contains octeoblasts and osteocyte
osseous
NAME CONNECTIVE TISSUE
contains chondoroblast and chondrocyte
cartilage
What is the only true example of holocrine glands?
sabaceous or oil glands of the skin
NAME
the only true example of this gland is sebaceous or oil glands of the skin
holocrine glands
what are apocrine glands?
are glands found in animals in which the glands accumulate thier products beneath the free surface and are eventually pinched off by the cell
NAME
are glands found in animals in which the glands accumulate thier products beneath the free surface and are eventually pinched off by the cell
apocrine glands
Do people have apocrine glands?
no one is quite sure
if the humans do have apocrine glands what would be the best possible answer?
mammary glands
NAME
this tissue is found every in the body
connective tissue
NAME
is the most abundant and widely distrubted of the primary tissues
connective tissue
does the brain have lots of connective tissue?
no
NAME
the four main classes of this tissue are connective tissue proper, cartilage, ossesous, and the blood
connective tissue
What are the major functions of connective tissue? (4)
(1)binding (2)support (3)insulation (3)transportation
(1)cushions insulate and protect body organs and provide reserve energy fuel
fat cushions
What are the three main characteristics of connective tissue?
(1)common orgin (2)degress of vasculatrity (3)extracellular matrix
NAME TISSUE
has a common orgin, has differ degrees of vasculatrity and extracellular matrix
connective tissue
What is the common tissue that all connective tissue forms from?
mesenchyme
NAME
all the differ types of this tissue form from mesenchyme
connective tissue
Connective tissue are (1)
extracellular matrix
What is the extracellular matrix?
is a largly nonliving matrix which often seprates the living cells of the tissue
NAME
is largely a nonliving matrix which often separates the living cells of the tissue
extracellular matrix
Why is connective tissue able to bear weight, withstand great tension and endure abuse such as physical trauma and abrasions that no other tissue would be able to tolerate
bc of the extracellular matrix
Why is conenctive tissue's extracellular matrix make connective tissue unique compared to the other primary tissues?
bc of the matrix, connective tissue is able to bear weight, withstand great tension, and endure abuses such as physical wieght that no other tissues would be able to tolerate
What are the three main elements of connective tissue? (3)
(1)ground substance (2)fibers (3)cells
NAME
the three main elements of this tissue are ground substances, fibers, and cells
connective tissue
What is the ground substance?
is the unstructured material that fills the space btwn cells and contains the fibers
NAME
is the unstructured material that fills the space btwn cells and contains the fibers
ground substance
What makes of the ground substance? (3)
(1)interstitial fluid (2)cell adhesion protiens (3)proteoglycans
NAME
it is composed of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion protiens, and proteoglycans
ground substance
(1) serve manily as a connective tissue glue that allows connective tissue cells to attach themselves to matrix elements
cell adhesion protiens
proteoglycans consist of a protien core to which (1) are attached
GAGs
(1) consist of a protien core to which GAGs are attached
proteglycans
What does GAGs stand for?
cosaminoglycans
What are some ex(s) of GAGs ? (3)
(1)kertain sulfates (2)chondroitin (3)hyaluronic acid
NAME
exs include kertain sulfates, chondroitin, and hyaluronic acid
GAGs
what is the function of the fibers of connective tissue?
to provide support
the (1) of connective tissue provide support
fibers
What are the three types of fibers found in connective tissue? (3)
(1)collagen (2)elastic (3)reticular
Which fibers of the connective tissue are the strongest?
collagen fibers
Collagen fibers are the most (1) of all the connective tissue fibers
strongest
NAME
this tissue's fibers are collagen, elastic, reticular fibers
connective tissue
What are connective tissue?
are made up of the protien collagen
NAME
are made up of the protien collagen
connective tissue
Collagen fibers are extremly (1) and provide high (2)
(1)tough (2)tensile strength
NAME
this connective tissue fiber is tough and provides a high tensile strength
collagen
What is the elastic fibers?
are long, thin fibers that form branching networks in the extracellular matrix
NAME
are long, thin fibers that form branching networks in the extracellular matrix
elastic fibers
What are elastic fibers made of?
elastin
NAME
are made of the protien elastin
elastic fibers
What do elastic fibers do?
snap the connective tissue back to its normal length and shape
NAME
this fiber is responsble for snapping the connective tissue back to its normal length and shape
elastic fibers
Where can elastic fibers be found? (3)
in areas where greater elasticty is needed like the (1)lungs (2)skin and (3)blood vessel walls
NAME
is found in areas w greater elsticty is needed such as lungs, skin, and blood vessel walls
elastic fibers
Elastic fibers are sometimes called (1)
yellow fibers
(1) are sometimes called yellow fibers
elastic fibers
what are reticular fibers?
are fine collagenous fibers and are continous w collagen fibers
NAME
are fine collagenous fibers and are continous w collagen fibers
reticular fibers
Each major class of connective tissue has a fundamental cell type exists in (1) and (2) forms
(1)mature (2)immature
What does the suffix blast indicate?
undifferentiated cells of connective tissue
NAME
this suffix indicates undifferentiated cells of the connective tissue
blast
What happens to blast cells once they assume thier less active mature mode?
they matain the health of the matrix
What does the suffix cyte refer to?
mature blast cells
NAME
this suffix refers to mature blast cells
cyte
Connective tissue is also home to (1)
an assortment of other cell types
NAME
this tissue is home to an assortment of other cell types
connective tissue
What kinds of other cells can connective tissue have?
(1)fat cells (2)white blood cells (3)plasma cells (4)mast cells (5)macrophages
What are plasma cells?
are antibody producing cells
NAME
are anitbody producing cells
plasma cells
What are mast cells?
are oval cells that typically cluster along blood vessels
NAME
are oval cells that typically cluster along blood vessels
mast cells
What is the function of mast cells?
act as senstive sentinels to detect foriegn substances and initiate local inflammatory responses against them
NAME
act as senstive sentinels to detect foriegn substances and initiate local inflammatory responses against them
mast cells
What are two types of mast cells? (3)
(1)herparin (2)histamine (3)proteases
NAME
two types of this cell include herparin, proteases, and histamine
mast cells
What are herparin?
an anticoagulant chemical that prevents blood clotting when free in the bloodstream and regulate the action of other mast cell chemicals
NAME
is an anticoagulant chemical that prevents blood clotting when free in the bloodstream and regulate the action of other mast cell chemicals
herparin
What is histamine?
a substance that makes capillaries leaky
NAME
is a substance that makes capillaries leaky
histamine
What is proteases?
are protien degrading enzymes
NAME
are protien degrading enzymes
proteases
What are macrophages?
are large irregularly shaped cells that avidly phagocytize a broad variety of forgein substances
NAME
are large irregularly shaped cells that avidly phagocytize a broad variety of forgein substances
macrophages
T or F
marcophages can also dispose of dead tissue
True
NAME
are central actors in the immune system
macrophages
(1) are peppered throughout the connective tissue
macrophages
All classes of connective tissue surrounded by (1)
a matrix
NAME
is the first definitive tissue formed from the mesoderm germ layer
mesenchyme
What does mesenchyme form from?
germ layer
What is mucous connective tissue?
is a temporary tissue derived from the mesenchyme and similar to it
NAME
is a tmeporary tissue derived frm the mesenchyme and similar to it
mucous connective tissue
What are the functions of areolar connective tissue?
(1)supporting and binding other tissues (2)holding body fluids (3)defending against infection (4)storing nutrients as fat
NAME
functions of this tissue include supporting and binding other tissues, holding body fluids, defending against infection, and storing nutrients as fat cells
areolar connective tissue
What are fibroblast?
are flat branching cells that appear spindle shaped in profile but numerous macrophages are also seen and presents a formable barrier to invading microbes
NAME
are flat branching cells that appear spindle shpaed in profile but numerous macrophages are also seen and presents a formable barrier to invading mircobes
fibroblast
Because of its lose nature, (1) tissue provides a reservior of water and salts for surrounding body tissues
areolar connective
Because of its lose nature, areolar connective tissue provides a reservior of (1) and (2)
(1)water (2)salts for surrounding body tissues
What is edema?
is a condition that ocurs when a body region becomes inflammed cauing the areolar tissue in the area to soak up excess fluids like a sponge and the affected area swells and becomes puffy
NAME
is a conditon that ocurs when a body region becomes inflammed causing the areolar tissue in the area to soak up excess fluids like a sponge and the affected area swells and becomes puffy
edema
NAME
this tissue is the most widely distributed connective tissue in the body and it serves as a kind of unverisal packing material btwn other tissues
areolar connective tissue
Areolar connective tissue is the most (1) of the connective tissue in the body and serves as a kind of unverisal (2)
(1)widely distrubited (2)packing material btwn other tissues
NAME
is a gel-like ground substance containg fibers and has star shaped mesenchymal cells
mesenchyme
NAME
gives rise to all other connective tissues
mesenchyme
NAME
this tissue is primarly in the embyro
mesenchyme
NAME
is a gel-like matrix w all three fiber types: fibroblasts, microphages, mast cells, and some white blood cells
Areolar loose connective tissue
NAME
wraps and chusions organs, it marcophages phagoctyize bacteria, plays important roles in inflammation, and holds and conveys tissue fluid
Areolar loose connective tissue
(1) forms the of the lamina propria of mucous membranes
Areolar connective tissue
NAME TISSUE
is widely distrubted under epithelia of body
areolar connective tissue
What is Adipose connective tissue?
fat tissue
NAME
is fat tissue
Adipose connective tissue
What are adipocytes?
are fat cells that account for 90% of the tissue's mass weight
NAME
are fat cells that account for 90% of the tissue's mass weight
adipocytes
T or F
w/o fat stores in our adipose tissue, we could live live for more than a few more days w/out eating
False
What are some other areas where fat accumulates?
(1)eyeballs (2)kidneys (3)abdomen and hips
What are the differ types of adipose connective tissue?
(1)white (2)brown
What is white adipose connnective tissue?
stores nutrients
NAME
this adipose connective tissue stores nutrients
white
NAME
this type of adipose connective tissue consumes its nutrients stores to generate heat to warm the body
brown
What is brown adipose connective tissue?
consumes its nutrients stores to generate heat to warm the body
What is the differ btwn white and brown adipose connective tissue?
(1)white-stores nutrients (2)brown-consumes its nutrients its stores to generate heat to warm the body
What is reticular connective tissue?
is a network of reticular fiber in a typical loose ground substance
NAME
is a network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance
reticular connective tissue
What are the functions of reticular connective tissue?
(1)fibers form a internal soft skeleton that supports other cell types
NAME
function is that this tissue's fibers that form a internal soft skeleton that supports other cell types
reticular connective tissue
NAME
main location includes lymphoid organs
reticular connective tissue
Where is reticular connective tissue located?
lymphoid organs
Where is adipose connective tissue located? (5)
(1)under skin (2)breasts (3)kindeys (4)eyeballs (5)w/in abdomen
NAME
this tissue is located under the skin, in the breast, kindeys, eyeballs, and w in abdomen
adipose connective tissue
NAME
matrix as in areolar but very sparse, closely packed adipcytes or fat cells have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplet
Adipose connective tissue
What is the function of adipose connective tissue?
provides a reserve food fuel (2)insulates against heat loss (3)supports and protects organs
NAME
provides a reserve food fuel, insulates against heat loss, and supports and protects organs
adipose connective tissue
What is stroma?
is retucular tissue that forms an internal framework that can support many free blood cells
NAME
is retucular tissue that forms an internal framework that can support many free blood cells
stroma
What are dense regular connective tissue?
have fibers as there predominant element
NAME
have fibers as there predominant element
regular connective tissue
(1) tissue is sometimes also called fibrous connective tissue
regular connective tissue
regular connective tissue is sometimes also called (1)
fibrous connective tissue
(1) fibers are slightly wavy
collagen
What allows the regular connective tissue to strech a little?
the collagen fibers
(1) tissue forms the, tendons, ligaments, and aponerusoes
regular dense connective
regular dense connective tissue forms the (1), (2), and (3)
(1)tendons (2)ligaments (3)aponeuroses
What are aponeuroses?
are flat sheetlike tendons that attach muscles to other muscles at the bones
NAME
are flat sheetlike tendons that attach muscles to other muscles at the bones
aponeuroses
What are ligaments?
bind bones together at the joints
NAME
bind bones together at the joints
ligaments
What are tendons?
cords that attach muscles to the bones
NAME
are cords that attach muscles to the bones
tendons
What is dense iregular connective tissue?
has bundles of collagen fibers that run in different directions
NAME
this tissue has bundles of collagen fibers that run in different directions
dense irregular connective tissue
NAME
a network of reticular biners in a typical loose ground substance and reticular cells lie in a network
reticular loose connective tissue
NAME
fibers form a soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types
reticular loose connective tissue
What is the function of reticular loose connective tissue?
recticular loose connective tissue
Where can you find recticular loose connective tissue?
lymphiod organs
NAME
can be found in the lymphoid organs
recticular loose connective tissue
NAME
these tissue is found in the skin as the leathery dermis and forms the fibrous joint capsules and the fibrous coverings that surround some organs
dense irregular conenctive tissue
Dense irregular connective tissue is found in the skin as the leathery (1) and forms the fibrous (2) and the fibrous (3)
(1)dermis (2)joint capsules (3)coverings that surround some organs
NAME TISSUE
has primarly parrallel collagen fibers, a few elastin fibers, and major cell types is the fibroblast
dense regular connective tissue
What are the functions of dense regular connective tissue?(3)
(1)attaches the muscles to bones or to muscles, (2)attaches bones to bones (3)w/stands great tensile stress when fulling force is applied in one directionn
NAME TISSUE
its function is to attach muscles to bones or to muscles, and bones to bones
dense regular connective tissue
NAME TISSUE
can w/stand great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction
dense regular connective tissue
NAME TISSUE
can be found in tendons, most ligaments, and aponeuroses
dense regular connective tissue proper
NAME TISSUE
primarly irregularly arranged collagen fibers, some elastic fibers, and major cell is fibroblast
dense irregular connective tissue
What is the function of dense irregular connective tissue? (2)
(1)able to w/stand tension exerted in many directions (2)provides structural strength
NAME TISSUE
is able to w/stand tension exerted in many directions and provides structural strength
dense irregular connective tissue
Where can u find dense irregular connective tissue? (3)
(1)dermis of the skin (2)submucosa of digestive tract (3)fibrous capsules of organs and joints
NAME
this tissue can be found in the dermis of the skin, submucosa of digestive tract, fibrous capsules of organs and joints
dense irregular connective tissue
What is cartilage?
stands up to both tension and compression
NAME
stands up to both tension and compression
cartilage
Does catrilage have nerve fibers?
no
NAME
this tissue have no nerve fibers and is avascular
cartilage
Cartilage tissue has no (1) and is (2)
(1)nerve fibers (2)avascular
NAME
this tissue is made of 80% water
cartilage
Cartilage is made up of (1)
80% water
What helps cartilage rebound after being compressed and helps to nourish cartilage cells?
the movement of tissue fluid in its matrix
The movement of tissue fluid in the matrix of cartilage enables cartilage to (1) and helps to (2)
(1)rebound after being compressed (2)nourish cartilage cells
What are chondroblasts?
are the predominant cell type in growing cartilage that produce new matrix until the skeleton stops growing at the end of adolescence
NAME
are the predominant cell type in growing cartilage that produce new matrix until the skeleton stops growing at the end of adolescence
chondroblasts
What are chondrocytes?
are mature cartilage cells
NAME
are mature cartilage cells
chondrocytes
Where can u typically find chondrocytes?
lacunae
NAME
u can normally find this cell in the lacunae
chondrocytes
What is the lacuane?
is a cavity where chondrocytes are typically found
NAME
is a cavity where chondrocytest are typically found
lacuane
Why to cartilage heal slowly when injured?
bc cartilage is avascular and aging cartilage cells lose thier ability to divide
Can cartilage cell's divide after adolescence?
no
NAME
this person is likely to experience how cartilage heals slowly
people who have experienced sports injuries
What happens to cartilage during later in life? Why?
(1)cartilages tend to calcify or even ossify bc the chondrocytes are poorly nourished and die
NAME
this tissue tend to later in life, to calcify or even ossify bc the chondorcytes are poorly nourished and die
cartilage
NAME TISSUE
the three main types are hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage
cartilage
Hyaline cartilage is also called (1)
gristle
(1) cartilage is also called gristle
hyaline
NAME
this cartilage is the most abundant in the body
hyaline
Hyaline cartialge is the most (1) in the body
abundant
What is the hyaline cartilage?
contains large numbers of collagen fibers nand the matrix appears amorphous and glassy
NAME TISSUE
contains large numbers of collagen fibers and the matrix appears amorphous and glassy.
hyaline cartilage
NAME
amorphous but firm matrix, collagen fibers form an imperceptible network, chondroblasts produce the matrix and when matrue lie in the launae
hyaline cartilage
What are the functions of the hyaline cartilage? (3)
(1)supports and reinforces (2)has resillent cushioning properties (3)resists compressive stress
NAME
supports and reinforces, has resillent cushioning properties and resists compressive stress
hyaline cartilage
NAME
this tissue can be found /forms most of the embryonic skeleton, covers the ends of lone bones in joint cavities, forms the costal cartilage of the ribs, the cartilage of the trachea, nose, and larnx
hyaline cartilage
Where can hyaline cartilage be found? (5)
(1) forms most of the embryonic skeleton (2) covers the ends of lone (3) bones in joint cavities (4)forms the costal cartilage of the ribs (5) the cartilage of the trachea, nose, and larnx
NAME
is similar to hyaline cartialge but more elastic fibers in matrix
elastic cartilage
What is the function of elastic cartilage?
maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility
NAME
maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility
elastic cartilage
NAME
this tissue can be found in the epiglottis and supports the external ear
elastic cartilage
Where can you find elastic cartilage? (2)
(1)supports the external ear (2)epiglottis
NAME
matrix is similar to but less firm than that in hyaline cartilage and thick collagen fibers predominate
fibrocartilage
What is the function of fibrocartilage?
tensile strength w the ability absorb compressive strength
NAME
the function of this tissue is tensile strength w the abililty to absorb compressive stregth
fibrocartilage
NAME
is a hard caicifed matrix containing many collagen fibers and osetocytes lie in lacunae and is very well vascularized
osseous tissue
Where can u find fibrocartilage? (3)
(1)invertebral discs (2)pubic symphysis (3)discs of the knee joint
NAME
this tissue can be found in invertebral discs, pubic symphysis and the discs of the knee joint
fibrocartilage
What is the function of the osseous tissue?
(1)bone supports and protects (2)provides levers for the muscles to act on (3)stores calicum, other minerals, and fats (4)marrow inside bones is the site for blood cell formation
NAME
this tissue's functions include bone support and protection, provieds levers for the muscles to act on, stores Calicum, other minerals, and fat, and marrow inside the bones is the site for blood cell formation
osseous tissue
Osseous tissue really refers to the (1)
bone
(1) tissue really refers to the bone
osseous tissue
Where can osseous tissue be found?
the bones
NAME
this tissue can be found in the bones
osseous tissue
NAME
is red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix or plasma
blood
What is the function of blood?
(1)transport of respirtory gases, nutrients, wastes, and other substances
NAME
this tissue's function includes transport of respirtory gases, nutrients, wastes, and other substances
blood
NAME
is contained w/in the blood vessels
blood
Hyaline cartialge covers the ends of longs bones as (1) cartilage
articular
(1) cartilage covers the ends of long bones as articular cartilage
hyaline
NAME
this cartilage supports the tip of the nose, connects the ribs to the sternum, and supports most of the respiartory system passages
hyaline cartilage
Hyaline cartilage presists during childhood as the (1), actively growing near the end of long bones that provide for cont growth in length
epiphyseal plates
NAME
this tissue presists during childhood as the epuphyseal plates, actively growing near the end of lones bones that provide for cont growth in legnth
hayline cartilage
What is elastic cartilage?
is similar to hyalin cartilage but has more elastic fibers in the matrix
NAME
this tissue forms the "skeletons" of the external ear and the epiglottis
elastic cartilage
Elastic cartilage forms the "skeletons" of the (1) and (2)
(1)external ear (2)epiglottis
What is fibrocartilage?
is often found where hyaline cartilage meets a true ligament or tendon
NAME
is often found where hyalin cartilage meets a true ligament or tendon
fibrocartilage
Where kind of areas is fibrocartilage likely to be found?
in areas where there is strong support and the ability to w.stand heavy pressures
NAME
this tissue is found in areas where there is strong support and the ability to w/stand pressures such as the intervertebral discs, and the spongy cartilages of the knee
fibrocartilage
What is osseous tissue?
is tissue that has an expectional ability to support and protect body structures
NAME
is a tissue that has an expectional ability to support and protect body structures
osseous tissue
The bones of the skeleton also provide (1)
cavities for fat storage and synthesis of blood cells
NAME
this tissue also provides cavities for fat storage and synthesis of blood cells
osseous tissue
What are Osteoblasts?
produce the organic portion of the matrix for the osseous tissue
NAME
these cells produc the organic portion of the matrix for the osseous tissue; then bone salts are diposed on and btwn fibers
Osteoblasts
What are osteocytes?
are mature bone cells
NAME
are mature bone cells
osteocytes
(1) is very well supplied by the blood tissue
bone
Osseous tissue is not like cartilage bc it is supplied by the (1)
blood tissue
NAME
this tissue is the most atypical of all the connective tissue
blood
Blood is most (1) of all the connective tissue
atypical
Why is blood classifed as connective tissue?
bc it develops from mesencyhme and consists of blood cells surrounded by blood plasma
Blood tissue consists of (1) surrounded by (2)
(1)blood cells (2)blood plasma
What primary type of tissue is blood?
connective tissue proper
What is blood plasma?
is a nonliving matrix that surrounds blood cells
NAME
is a nonliving matrix that surrounds blood cells
blood plasma
T or F
the fibers of blood tissue are only visble during a blood clot
true
What are the different types of covering and lining membranes? (3)
(1)cutaneous (2)mucous (3)serous
(1)are at least two primary tissues types: an epithelium bound to an underlying of connective tissue proper
covering and lining membranes
What are covering and lining membranes?
are at least two primary tissue types:an epithelium bound to an underlying of connective tissue proper
(1) are just simple organs
covering and lining membranes
covering and lining membranes are (1)
simple organs
What are the synovical membranes?
membranes that line joint cavities and consist of connective tissue only
NAME
are membranes taht line joint cavities and consist of connective tissue only
synovical membranes
What is the cutaneous membranes?
is your skin
NAME
this membrane is your skin
cutaneous mebrnane
What does the cutaneous membrane consist of?
an organ system consisting of a keratinized strafied squamous epitheliem firmly attached to a dense irregular connective tissue
NAME
is an organ system consisting of a keratinized strafied squamous epithelium firmly attached to a dense irregular connective tissue
cuatneous mebrane
NAME
this membrane is exposed to the air and is a dry membrbane
cutaneous membrane
Muscous membrane is also called (1)
mucosae
(1) membrane is also called the mucosae
muscous
What is the mucous membrane?
line body cavities that open to the exterior
NAME
this membrane lines the body cavities that open to the exterior
mucous membranes
What are some exs of mucous membranes?
(1)hollow organs of the digestive tract, respriatory, and urogenital tracts
NAME
in a cases this membrane is a "wet" or moist membrane bathed by secretions or urine
mucous membrane
the mucous membrane is a (1) membrane bathed by (2)
(1)"wet" or moist (2)secretions or urine
What is the lamina propria?
is a epithelial sheet which is directly underlain by a layer of loose connective tissue in the muscous membranes
NAME
refers to a epithelial sheet which is directly underlain by a layer of loose connective tissue in the muscous mebrane
lamina propria
In some mucoasae, the lamina propria rests on a third layer of (1)
smooth muscle cells
In some mucoasae, the (1) rests on a third layer of smooth muscle cells
lamina propria
NAME
this membrane is often adapted for absorption and secretion
mucous membranes
the muscous membrane is often adapted for (1) and (2)
(1)absorption (2)secretion
What is the serous membrane?
is the moist membranes found in closed ventral body cavities
NAME
is the moist membranes found in closed ventral body cavities
serous membranes
Serous membranes are called (1)
seroasae
(1) membranes are called seroasae
serous
What is the pleura?
is the serous membrane that covers the lungs
NAME
is the serous membrane that covers the lungs
pleura
What is the pericardium?
is the serous membrane that covers the heart
NAME
is the serous membrane that covers the heart
pericardium
NAME
is a serous mebrane that covers the abdominopelvic cavity
peritoneums
What is peritoneums?
is a serous membrane that covers the abdominopelivic cavity
What makes of the nervous tissue? (3)
(1)brain (2)spinal cord (3)nerves
NAME
consists of the brain, spinal cord, and the nerves
nervous tissue
What is the function of the nervous tissue?
transmit eletrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors which control thier activity
NAME
this tissue functions in the transmition of electrical singals from sensory receptors and to effectors which control thier activity
nervous tissue
What are the major two types of cells in the nervous tissue? (2)
(1)neurons (2)supporting cells
What are neurons?
are highly speacilized nerve cells that generate and conduct nerve impulses
NAME
are highly speacilized nerve cells that generate and conduct nerve impulses
neurons
What are supporting cells?
nonconducting cells that support, insulate, and protect the delicate neurons
NAME
are nonconducting cells that support, insulate, and protect the delicate neurons
supporting cells
NAME
are long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells and obivous striations
skeletal muscles
What is muscle tissue?
is a highly cellular well-vascularized tissues that are responsible for most types of body movement
NAME
is a highly cellular well-vascularized tissue that are responsible for most types of body movement
muscle tissue
Muscle cell posses (1)
myofilaments
NAME
these cells posses myofilaments
muscle cells
What are myofilaments?
are elaborate versions of the actin and myosin filaments that bring about the movement or contraction in all cell types
NAME
are the actin and myosin filaments that bring about the movement or contractions in all cell types
myofilaments
What are the three main types of muscle tissue?
(1)skeletel (2)cardiac (3)skeletal
What is skeletal muscle?
is packaged connective tissue sheets into organs called skeletal muscles that are attached to the bones of the skeleton
NAME TISSUE
is packaged connective tissue sheets into organs called skeletal muscles that are attached to the bones of the skeleton
skeletal muscle
The skeletal muscles form the (1)
flesh of the body
NAME TISSUE
this tissue forms the flesh of the body
skeletal muscles
Skeletal muscles pull on (1) and (2) causing body movements
bones (2)skin
(1) muscles pull on bones and skin causing body movements
skeleteal muscles
What causes body movement?
skeletal muscles pull on the bones and skin causing movement
Skeletal muscle cells are also called (1)
muscle fibers
(1) are also called muscle fibers
skeletal muscle cells
What are muscle fibers?
are long cylindraical cells that contain many nuclei
NAME
are long cylindracial cells that contain many nuclei
muscle fibers
What is cardiac muscle?
is muscle tissue only found in the wall of the heart
NAME
is muscle tissue that is found only in the wall of the heart
cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle contractions help (1)
propel blood through the blood vessesls to all parts of the body
NAME TISSUE
contractions of this tissue propel blood through the blood vessels to all parts of the body
cardiac muscle
What is the function of the skeletal muscles? (5)
(1)volunatry movement (2)locomotion (3)manipulation of environment (4)facial expression (5)voluntary control
NAME TISSUE
this tissue functions in volunatry movement, locomotion, manipulation of environment, facial expression and volunatry control
skeletal muscles
Where can you find skeletal muscle tissue?
skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally to the skin
NAME TISSUE
branching, striated, generally uninucleate cells that interdigitate at specialized junctions
cardiac muscle
What is the function of cardiac muscle? (2)
as it contracts, to propel blood into circulation (2)involunatry movement
NAME TISSUE
this tissue functions in involunatry movment and as it contracts, to propel blood into circulation involunatry movement
cardiac muscle
How are cardiac and skeletal muscle cells are differ?
(1)they differ strucurally in the cardiac cells are uniinucleate and are branching cells that fit together tightly at junctions called intercalted discs
How are cardiac and skeletal muscle cells similar?
both cells are striated
Whta are intercalated discs?
are juncitons that are in the cardiac muscle
NAME
are junctions that are in the cardiac muscle
intercalated discs
What is smooth muscle?
has no visible striations
NAME TISSUE
has no visible striations
smooth muscle
Where can you find smooth muscle?
mostly in the walls of hollow organs
NAME TISSUE
is found mostly in the walls of hollow organs like the digestive tract
smooth muscle
NAME TISSUE
are spindle shaped cells w central nuclei, no striations, and has cells arranged closely to form sheets
smooth muscle
What is the function of smooth muscle? (2)
propel substances or objects along internal passageways and (2)involunatry control
NAME TISSUE
this tissue's functions include propeling substances or objects along internal passageways and in involunatry control
smooth muscle
Skeletal muscles are often called (1)
volunatry muscle
(1) are often called the volunatry muscle
skeletal muscle
smooth and cardiac muscles are often called the (1)
involunatry muscle
(1) and (2) muscles are often called the involunatry muscle
(1)smooth (2)cardiac
What are some ex(s) of defenses exerted at the bodies external boundries? (3)
(1)skin and mucoasae (2)cilla in epithelia cells of the respiratrory tract (3)the strong acid produced by the stomach
What happens when a tissue injury ocurs?
the body's inflammatory and immune responses are triggered
Tissue repair requires that (1) and (2)
cells divide and migrate
(1) requires that cells divide and migrate
tissue repair
What triggers tissue repair?
growth factors
What are two ways that tissue can be repaired?(2)
(1)regeneration (2)fibriosis
regeneration and fibriosis are both types of (1)
tissue repair
What are the two things that deterimine which method is used to repair tissue? (2)
(1)the type of tissue damaged (2)the severity of the injury
What is regeneration?
is the replacement of destroyed tissue cells with the same kind of tissue
NAME
is the replacement of destroyed tissue cells with the same kind of tissue
regeneration
What is fibrosis?
involves profileration scar tissue
NAME
involves the profileration of scar tissue
fibrosis
What is scar tissue?
is fibrous connective tissue used to replace damaged tissue
NAME
is fibrous connective tissue used to replace damaged tissue
scar tissue
What are the three main steps of tissue repair? (3)
(1)inflammation sets the stage (2)organiation restores the blood (3)Regeneration and fibrosis effect the permanet repair
What happens intial when the tissue is damaged?
injured tissue cells, marcophages, mast cells, and other cell release inlammatory chemicals which cause the the capillaries to dilate and become very permeable
Why when tissue is damaged do the injured tissue cells, marcophages, mast cells, and other cells release inflammatory chemicals that cause the capillaries to dilate and become very permeable?
bc this allows white blood cells and plasma fluid rich in clotting protiens, anitbodies and other subsances to seep into the injured area
When tissue is damaged the damaged tissue cells, marcophages, mast cells, and other cells release inflammatory chemicals that cause (1)
the capillaries to dilate and become very permeable
Leak clotting protiens construct a (1)
clot which stopes the loss of blood and holds the wound togeher or isolates the injured area
(1) construct a cloth which stops the loss of blood and holds the wound together and isolates the injured area
leak clotting protiens
the part of the clot exposed to the air quickly (1)
dries and hardens forming a scab
What is the first stage of tissue repair?
organization
Even while the inflammatory process is going on, (1) is ocuring too
organization
What happens during the orgainzation stage?
the blood clot is replaced by granulation tissue
NAME
during this stage of tissue repair, the blood clot is replaced by granulation tissue
the organization stage
What is granulation tissue?
is a delicate pink tissue composed of several elements
NAME TISSUE
is a delicate pink tissue composed of several elements
granulation tissue
Granulation tissue contains (1) tha grow in nearby areas
capillaries
The granulation tissue destined to become scar tissue is highly (1)
resistant to infection
the (1) is highly resistant to infection
granulation tissue destined to become scar tissue
Why is the granulation tissue destined to become scar tissue, highly resistant to infection?
bc it producs bateria inhibiting substances
During organization, also the surface epithelia begans to (1)
regenerate growing under the scab until it detaches
What kinds of tissue regenarate well? (4)
(1)epithelia tissue (2)areolar connective tissue (3)dense irregular connective tissue (4)blood forming tissue
Epithelia tissue, areolar connective tissue, dense irregular connective tissue, and blood forming tissue are ex(s) of tissues that (1)
regenerate well
Which tissues have virtually no functional regenerative capacity?
(1)cardiac (2)nervous tissue
Cardiac and nervous tissue have virtaully (1)
no functional regenerative capacity
in nonregenarting tissues and in exceptionally in severe wounds, what happens to the damaged tissue?
fibrosis totally replaces the lost tissue
What makes scar tissue differ from the tissue that was there before it (2)?
(1)it lacks the flexability and elasticty of most normal tissues (2)it cannot perform the normal tissues it has replaced
Scar tissue that forms in the walls of urinary bladder, the heart, or other musclular organs can hamper (1)
the function of the organ
Scar tissue that forms in (1) can hamper thier function
the walls of urinary bladder, the heart, and other muscular organs
What are the negative effects of adhesions?
(1)can obstruct the flow of food (2)restrict heart movements (3)immoblize joints
NAME
this can obstruct the flow of food, restrict heart movements, and immoblize joints
adhestions
What is one of the first events that ocurs during embroynic development?
the formation of the three primary germ layer
What are the three primary germ layers?
(1)ectoderm (2)mesoderm (3)endoderm
the primary germ layers then speaclize to form the (1)
four primary tissues
Epithelia tissues form from what germ layers?
all three
NAME TISSUE
this tissue forms from all three germ layers
epithelia tissue
In adults, what are the only tissues that are higly miotic?
(1)epithelia (2)blood
What is benign neoplasm?
a localzied tumor
NAME
is a localized tumor
neoplasm
What are maligant neoplasms?
are nonencapsulated masses that grow relentlessy and become killers
NAME
are nonencapsulated masses that grow relentlessy and become killers
maligant neoplasms
What is metastsis?
is the capability for tumors to travel to other parts of the body
NAME
is the capability for tumors to travel to other parts of the body
metastsis
What is a transformation?
is a change into a cancerous one
NAME
is a change into a cancerous one
transformation
What causes cells to transform?
carcinogens
What are carcinogens?
cancer causers
NAME
refers to cancer causers
carcinogens
What do all the different factors that cause transformations have in common?
all cause mutations
What are oncogenes?
are cancer causing genes
NAME
are cancer causing genes
oncogenes
What are proto-oncogenes?
are benign forms of oncogenes in normal cells
NAME
are benign forms of oncogenes in normal cells
proto-oncogenes
Proto-oncogenes code for protiens that are essential (1), (2), and (3)
(1)cell division (2)growth (3)cellular adhesions
What are antioncogenes?
supress cancer by inactivating carcinogens, aiding DNA, repair or enhancing the immune system's counterattack
NAME
supress cancer by inactivating carcinogens aiding DNA, and repair or enhancing the immune system's counterattack
antocogenes
(1) are also called antioncogenes
tumor suppressor
tumor suppressor are also called (1)
antioncogenes
What is a biopsy?
removing a tissue sample surgiaclly and examining it microscpoically for maligant cells
NAME
refers to removing a tissue sample surgically and examining it mircoscopically for maligant cells
biopsy
What are some of the things that promising new therapies? (3)
(1)combating spefic abnormal protiens (2)delivering durgs more precisely to the cancer while sparing normal tissue (3)starving cancer cells by cutting off thier blood supply
T or F
the qauilty of life of cancer patients has improved in the last decade
true
Why does tissue repair become less effective as you age?
(1)the amount of collagen in the body declines (2)reduced circulatroy efficiency which reduces the delivery of nutrients to the tissues